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Transcript of Morphology Chart
'Functional' rather than 'Grammatical.' A Morpheme is the smallest
function All free Morphemes
stand alone as words.
English has three kinds of free Lexical Morpheme: Nouns, Verbs, and Adjectives. Inflectional Pronouns Determiners Conjunctions MORPHEMES Lexical Grammatical Free Bound Nouns Verbs Adjectives Head Body Body Body Body Body Body Body Body Body Body Body stems that
must be attached to
another morpheme Free Bound Prepositions Derivational Lexical morphemes have meaning by themselves (more accurately, they have sense). English has two kinds:
Free and Bound. A Noun represents
--a person (the girl)
--a place (Kent, Ohio)
--a concrete thing (the chair)
--an abstract idea (love) A Verb represents
--an action (run)
--a state of being (be, feel) It is generally better to categorize verbs by what they do rather than what they are
main: carries the meaning.
auxiliary: carries the mood and/or tense
intransitive: does not take a direct object
transitive: takes a single direct object
ditransitive: takes two direct objects
dynamic: is an action verb
stative: is a state of being verb
finite: expresses tense, can be a main verb
non-finite: does not express tense, cannot be a main verb There are two kinds of Morpheme:
Lexical (the unit of meaning) and Grammatical (the unit of grammatical function) Adjectives describe nouns. There are three types of adjective:
attributive: precedes the noun it modifies, ie, "my new coat"
predicative: appears in the predicate following the noun it modifies, ie, "the radio is loud"
absolute: generally cannot be intensified or compared, ie, "unique," "perfect," or "square" Lexical Bound Stems are almost pure meaning with very little grammar. Here are two examples:
-clude means "to enclose" as in: exclude, include, occlude, preclude
-rupt means "to break apart, explode, destroy" as in: corrupt, disrupt, erupt, interrupt
Notice that "-rupt" by itself does not belong to a word class or part of speech. "-rupt" must be attached to another morpheme to acquire grammar and become a word. As with Lexical Morphemes, Grammatical Morphemes can be free or bound. Grammatical Morphemes specify relationships among morphemes. Free Morphemes
stand alone as words.
English has four kinds of free Grammatical Morpheme: Prepositions, Pronouns, Determiners, and Conjunctions. Prepositions link their object noun phrases to other noun phrases within a sentence.
Usually, prepositions show a concrete spatial or temporal relationship between the noun phrase and the object, as in: The cat is under the table. Pronouns are the quintessential grammatical morpheme in that they are almost pure grammar with very little meaning. In this way, they are the opposite of Bound Stems. Pronouns replace noun phrases--not nouns. For example, in the sentence "The cat slept on the chair" the noun phrases "the cat" and "the chair" can be replaced by the pronouns "she" and "it," as in "She slept on it." Determiners are words that reveal information, such as number or quantity, about nouns. The categories include:
articles--the, a, an
possessive pronouns--hers, theirs
possessive nouns--the boy's
demonstrative pronouns--this, that
numbers--one, two, three
indefinite pronouns--some, any, no Conjunctions connect words, phrases, and clauses. English has four kinds of Conjunction:
(which is also called an
Adverbial Conjunction) Coordinating Conjunctions join sentence elements of equal grammatical weight, maintaining their equality:
word(s) to word(s)
green and blue
phrase(s) to phrase(s)
over the river or through the woods
clause(s) to clauses(s)
It's raining, but the sun is out. Correlative Conjunctions, like Coordinating Conjunctions, connect words, phrases, and clauses. Correlative Conjunctions, however, are multi-word formations, each part embedded in its own phrase or clause. English has seven
and but or
for nor so yet English has five sets of Correlative Conjunction:
not only--but also
just as--so Here are some examples of Correlative Conjunctions.
Both Jeanne and Marie are in graduate school. (joins the two noun phrases)
Either I will meet you in the lobby, or I will come to your room. (joins the two clauses)
I will neither meet you in the lobby nor in your room. (joins the two prepositional phrases)
Not only is it raining, but the sun is also out. (joins the two clauses)
Just as Chaucer is a great poet so is Shakespeare. (joins the two phrases) Subordinating Conjunctions join two clauses, but, unlike Coordination Conjunctions, they subordinate the clauses in which they are embedded. English has a number of Subordinating Conjunctions, including these most common ones:
after since until
although so that when
because though where
before unless while Here are some examples of their usage:
After it rained, we went for a walk.
We were happy because we didn't get wet.
While many disagree, we like the rain. Bound Morphemes must be
attached to another morpheme. Most commonly, they attach to Lexical Morphemes, both Free and Bound. English has two kinds of Grammatical Bound Morpheme:
Derivational and Inflectional. English Bound Derivational Morphemes have two basic functions:
A) to change (or create) the part of speech of the words with which they combine
B) to slightly alter the meaning of the words with which they combine Type A Derivational Morphemes change the part of speech of their roots and most often combine as suffixes. Here are a few examples:
-ness: happy (Adj)+ -ness = happiness (N)
-ive: act (V) + -ive = active (Adj)
-ly: slow (Adj) + -ly = slowly (Adv) Type A Derivational Morphemes also create the parts of speech for Bound Lexical Morphemes. For example:
con-: con- + -ceive = conceive (V)
de-: de- + -pict = depict (V)
-ure: pict- + -ure = picture (N) Type B Derivational Morphemes slightly alter the meaning of the words with which they combine without changing the part of speech. Type B typically combine as prefixes. For example:
un-: un- + happy (Adj) = unhappy (Adj)
re-: re- + union (N) = reunion (N)
re-: re- + act (V) = react (V) Type A Derivational Morphemes sometimes combine to roots as prefixes:
en-: en- + feeble (Adj) = enfeeble (V)
be-: be- + token (N) = betoken (V) English has only 8 Inflectional Morphemes. Latin, a highly inflected language, has at least 30 inflections for its Nouns alone! These 8 Inflectional Morphemes always combine with Lexical Morphemes as suffixes. (There are, as usual, a few exceptions, but we will discuss those exceptions later.) Inflectional Morphemes can combine with Free Lexical Morphemes... ...as well as with Bound Lexical Morphemes--once they have become words. It is easier to think of Inflectional Morphemes as categories rather than as endings because English has numerous endings within most of the categories. Here are the 4 Inflectional Morphemes that combine with Verbs:
1) Verb--Past Tense--regular form: -ed
2) Verb--Past Participle--regular form: -ed
The most common irregular form is: -en.
3) Verb--Present Participle--regular form: -ing
Every word in the English language, with only one exception, that ends in -ing is a Verb deep in its soul. The exception is "pudding."
Additionally, all Verbs in the English language, with only two exceptions, take -ing. The exceptions are "beware" and "rumor." We never say "He was *bewaring the dog," and rarely say "She was rumoring about the surprise party."
4) Verb--Third-Person Present Tense Singular--regular forms: -s and -es. Here are the 2 Inflectional Morphemes that combine with Nouns:
1) Plural--regular forms: -s and -es
2a) Possessive singular--regular form: 's
2b) Possessive plural--regular forms: s' and '
Now you can see why English teachers go ballistic when they see misused apostrophes: Apostrophes carry grammatical information, just as the plural -s does. Here, finally, are the 8 (regular) Inflectional Morphemes of English and the Lexical Morphemes with which they combine as suffixes. Here are the 2 Inflectional Morphemes that combine with Adjectives:
1) Comparative--regular form: -er
2) Superlative--regular form: -est
We can also use "more" and "most" instead of the Inflectional suffixes. In fact, most Adjectives with two or more syllables take "more" and "most." For example, we say "most excellent" instead of "*excellentest" and "more honorable" instead of "*honorablest." Some Adjectives can function as Adverbs without a Derivational ending; these words, too, take the Comparative and Superlative in both their Adjectival and Adverbial functions.
early, earlier, earliest Additionally, all the forms of the Comparative and the Superlative can combine with Adverbs. (Did you notice that Adverb is not in the list of Free Lexical Morphemes? Adverbs are either derived from Adjectives or converted Adjectives.) The -ly Adverbs, derived from Adjectives, take these Inflectional Morphemes:
quick, quicker, quickest
quick (Adj) + -ly = quickly (Adv)
quickly--> more quickly, most quickly Punctuating sentences containing the various kinds of Conjunction is not as tricky as it looks. We will discuss this matter later. Conjunctive Adverbs add both the description of the Adverb and connection of the Conjunction to sentences. Here is a list of some of the most common Conjunctive Adverbs along with their adverbial emphases:
Result--therefore, of course, consequently
Concession--nevertheless, still, after all
Apposition--for example, that is, namely
Addition--moreover, also, likewise
Time--meanwhile, in the meantime
Contrast--however, instead, rather
Summary--thus, in conclusion, then
Reinforcement--further, indeed, in fact Here are some examples of Conjunctive Adverbs at work. Notice that they can be positioned in various places in their clauses and also that they do not subordinate their clauses.
Suzette loves to read; she does not, however, love to write.
Suzette loves to read; she does not love to write, however.
Socrates is human; all humans are mortal; therefore, Socrates is mortal.
Socrates is human; all humans are mortal; Socrates is, therefore, mortal.