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Transcript of Kitchen essentials
Products today can frequently be purchased in an “as edible portion.” This is something that is purchased trimmed and cut. EP/AP Amounts Measurement refers to how much of something is being used in a recipe. Volume is the amount of space an ingredient takes up. Volume measurement is best used for liquids.
Dry ingredients are measured by leveling them off evenly at the rim of the spoon or cup using a straightedge.
A typical set of measuring cups includes 1/4 cup, 1/3 cup, 1/2 cup, and 1 cup measures.
Liquid measuring cups are see-through and have measurement markings on the side.
Measuring spoons generally come in a set of four or five. Most customary sets include these sizes: 1/4 tsp, 1/2 tsp, 1 tsp, and 1 tbsp. Measuring The most commonly used system of measurement in the United States is based on customary units.
Cooking and baking require exact weighing and measuring of ingredients to ensure consistent quality and minimal waste.
The metric system is the standard system used in many other parts of the world. Metric units are based on multiples of 10 and include milliliters, liters, milligrams, grams, and kilograms.
When a recipe is written using metric units, use metric measuring tools.
Thermometers measure degrees of temperature in either Fahrenheit (°F), which is the customary measure, or Celsius (°C), which is the metric measure. Measurement Systems Professionalism means being courteous, honest, and responsible in one’s dealings with customers and coworkers. It also indicates that a person is maintaining standards for his or her work and behavior.
Professional culinarians have knowledge, skill, taste, judgment, dedication, pride, respect, and a sense of personal responsibility.
A kitchen brigade is a system of staffing a kitchen so that each worker is assigned a set of specific tasks.
A traditional dining-room brigade is led by the dining room manager (maître d’) who generally trains all service personnel, oversees wine selections, works with the chef to develop the menu, organizes the seating chart, and seats the guests. Section 4.1 Summary A workstation is a work area in the kitchen dedicated to a particular task. Workstations using the same or similar equipment for related tasks are grouped together into a work section.
Good kitchen design maximizes the flow of goods and staff from one area to the next and within each area itself.
A kitchen-brigade system is a method for staffing a kitchen so that each worker is assigned a set of specific tasks.
A dining-room brigade is led by the dining room manager (maître d) who generally trains all service personnel, oversees wine selections, works with the chef to develop the menu, organizes the seating chart, and seats the guests. Workstation = To be professional is to be.... Knowledge: A professional culinary program provides the culinary student with a basic knowledge of foods, food styles, and the methods used to prepare foods.
Skill: Culinary schooling alone cannot make a culinary professional. Practice and hands-on experience provide the skills necessary to produce quality foods or organize, train, motivate, and supervise a staff.
Flavor, aroma, taste: Culinary professionals must produce foods that taste great, or the customer will not return.
Judgment: Culinary professionals must use discretion and appropriate behavior with coworkers, supervisors, and employees. A standardized recipe includes details such as the list and amounts of ingredients, yield, equipment, and cooking time and temperature.
Customary units include ounces, teaspoons, tablespoons, cups, pints, and gallons. Metric units are based on multiples of 10 and include milligrams, grams, kilograms, milliliters, and liters.
To measure temperature, use a thermometer; to measure fat, use the stick, dry measuring cup, or water displacement method; and to measure by weight, use a scale.
To determine the as purchased or AP amount to yield an edible portion (EP) amount, divide the EP amount needed by the yield percentage. Get the yield percentage from a conversion table.
To find the total cost of a standard recipe, you must know both the ingredient amounts needed and the market price of each one. Then multiply or divide the ingredient amounts by the prices. Section 4.2 Summary Water displacement method: This method involves combining fat with water in a liquid measuring cup. Measuring (cont.) Convert a recipe when the yield of the recipe (the amount it provides) is not the same as the amount of product needed. The conversion of the recipe affects the cost of the recipe, but not necessarily the cost of the portion.
When properly converted and prepared, the quality of the product produced from the recipe should not vary from the original, no matter how many portions it yields.
Sometimes you must change (or convert) a recipe if the yield is not the amount you need.
Using basic math skills, it’s easy to increase or decrease many recipes. Converting Recipes Temperature, time, and equipment
Nutrition information Name of the recipe
Portion size A recipe is a written record of the ingredients and preparation steps needed to make a particular dish. Recipes for institutional use, or standardized recipes, must follow a format that is clear to anyone who uses them.
A standardized recipe lists the ingredients first, in the order they are to be used, followed by assembly directions or the method for putting the ingredients together.
A standardized recipe includes: Standardized Recipes Math influences every decision that a manager makes in an operation. It is the foundation of the kitchen and the back office. Math skills are extremely important in foodservice settings. Managers are expected to have a basic understanding of math and know how to apply mathematical principles to business situations.
Chefs and managers need to know how to determine recipe yields, convert recipes from customary to metric measure, and change the yields of recipes.
Culinary professionals need to understand the concepts of fraction, decimals, and percentages. They need to know how to use and apply these math functions in the kitchen. Business Math Dedication: Becoming a culinary professional is hard work.
Pride: It is important to have a sense of pride about a job well done. Pride extends to personal appearance and behavior in and around the kitchen.
Respect: Respect is having consideration for oneself and others. In order to respect others, a person must first respect himself or herself.
Personal responsibility: Personal responsibility means that a person is responsible for the choices he or she makes. Personal responsibility means that a person accepts accountability and is in control.
Education and the culinary professional: Employers value a formal culinary education. What Does It Mean To Be a Culinary Professional? (cont.) Prostart Industry Certification
Level 1 Costing recipes can be complicated, but the profitability of a restaurant or foodservice operation depends on balancing costs and prices. Standard recipe cost and cost per serving, or standard portion cost, are key success factors in quantity food production operations.
To find the total cost of a standard recipe, a manager must know both the ingredient amounts needed and the market price of each one.
Many operations price out all recipes and then check them every six months to see if they are still accurate, while others compare standard recipe costs to the national price index twice a year. Costing Recipes A healthy diet:
Emphasizes fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and fat-free or low-fat milk and milk products
Includes lean meats, poultry, fish, beans, eggs, and nuts
Is low in saturated fats, trans fats, cholesterol, salt (sodium), and added sugars
Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are recommended daily amounts of nutrients and energy that healthy people of a particular age range and gender should consume:
Recommended Dietary Allowances are daily nutrient standards established by the U.S. government.
Adequate Intakes identify daily intake levels for healthy people, and are typically assigned when scientists don’t have enough information to set an RDA. Healthy Diets Heat is transferred to food in three ways:
Types of cooking methods include dry-heat cooking, moist-heat cooking, and combination-cooking methods.
Broiling, grilling, roasting, baking, sautéing, pan-frying, stir-frying, and deep-frying are kinds of dry-heat cooking.
Simmering, poaching, blanching, and steaming are techniques used in moist-heat cooking.
Braising and stewing are types of combination cooking.
To determine when food is done cooking, identify if the product has its desired texture and minimum internal temperature. Section 5.3 Summary There are two important qualities that cooks look for to determine a product’s doneness:
Has it achieved the desired texture?
Has it reached the minimum internal temperature it needs to be safe?
Portioning is the amount of an item that is served to the guest.
Overportioning results in increased cost and lower profit from an item.
Plating is the decision about what serving vessel will be used to present the product as well as the layout of the item on the plate or in the bowl and the garnishing of the item.
Garnish enhances the food being served. Determining Doneness
& Plating Sous vide is a method in which food is cooked for a long time, sometimes well over 24 hours. Sous vide is French for “under vacuum.” Rather than placing food in a slow cooker, cooks place food in airtight plastic bags and then place the bags in water that is hot but well below boiling point.
Many foods can be baked or roasted in a microwave oven. However, microwave ovens do not give the same results as convection or conventional ovens because they cook food with waves of energy or radiation—microwaves—rather than with heat. Sous Vide and
Microwave Cooking When the best method for preparing certain food is a combination of dry-heat and moist-heat cooking methods, it is called combination cooking. In braising, first sear the food item in hot oil, and then partially cover it in enough liquid to come halfway up the food item. Then cover the pot or pan tightly and finish the food slowly in the oven or on the stovetop until it is tender.
When stewing, first cut the main food item into bite-sized pieces, and either blanch or sear them. As with braising, cook the food in oil first, and then add liquid. Stewing requires more liquid than braising. Cover the food completely while it is simmering. Combination-Cooking Methods Moist-heat cooking techniques produce food that is delicately flavored and moist, which can be served as a separate course or used as a sauce base. When simmering, completely submerge food in a liquid that is at a constant, moderate temperature.
When poaching, cook food between 160°F and 180°F. The surface of the poaching liquid should show some motion, but no air bubbles should break the surface.
Blanching is a variation of boiling. When blanching, partially cook food and then finish it later.
Steaming is cooking food by surrounding it in steam in a confined space such as a steamer basket, steam cabinet, or combi-oven. Direct contact with the steam cooks the food. Moist-Heat
Cooking Methods Stir-fry is a cooking method closely related to sauté. Like sauté, it is a quick-cooking, dry-heat method.
To pan-fry food, cook it in an oil over less intense heat than that used for sautéing or stir-frying.
To deep-fry food, bread or batter coat it, immerse (completely cover) it in hot fat, and fry it until it is done:
A breading has the same components as batter, but they are not blended together. A standard breading would be seasoned all-purpose flour and an egg and buttermilk dip.
The “float” of the item, the point when the item rises to the surface of the oil and appears golden brown, indicates doneness.
Recovery time is the amount of time it takes oil to reheat to the correct cooking temperature once food is added.
The smoking point is the temperature at which fats and oils begin to smoke, which means that the fat has begun to break down. Dry-Heat Cooking Methods (cont.) In dry-heat cooking, food is cooked either by direct heat, like on a grill, or by indirect heat in a closed environment, like in an oven. Broiling is a rapid cooking method that uses high heat from a source located above the food.
Grilling is a very simple dry-heat method that is excellent for cooking smaller pieces of food.
Roasting and baking are techniques that cook food by surrounding the items with hot, dry air in the oven.
Griddling is cooking a food item on a hot, flat surface (known as a griddle) or in a relatively dry, heavy-bottomed fry pan or cast-iron skillet.
The sautéing method cooks food rapidly in a small amount of fat over relatively high heat. The fat adds to the flavor. Dry-Heat Cooking Methods Heat is a type of energy. When two items of different temperatures have contact, energy, in the form of heat, transfers from the warmer item to the cooler until they both reach the same temperature. Conduction is the transfer of heat from one item to another when the items come into direct contact with each other.
Convection is the transfer of heat caused by the movement of molecules (in the air, water, or fat) from a warmer area to a cooler one.
Radiation does not require physical contact between the heat source and the food being cooked. Instead, heat moves by way of microwave and infrared waves.
Infrared heat is created when the heat from a source is absorbed by one material and then radiated out to the food. Heat Transfer Mise en place also involves pre-preparing certain ingredients that need to be refined before they are ready for use at the time of preparation.
Basic cooking techniques in pre-preparation include separating eggs, whipping egg whites, setting up a bain-marie, and making parchment liners for pans.
Blanching is another pre-preparation technique. It is a moist-heat method of cooking that involves cooking in a liquid or with steam just long enough to cook the outer portion of the food. The food is immediately placed in ice water to stop carryover cooking, also referred to as shocking. Pre-preparation Techniques Herbs and spices are important ingredients used to enhance and add to the flavor of food:
Herbs are the leaves, stems, or flowers of an aromatic plant.
Spices are the bark, roots, seeds, buds, or berries of an aromatic plant.
Storing spices and herbs properly helps to keep them fresh and flavorful. Heat, light, and air all speed the loss of flavor and color.
Add volatile spices and herbs toward the end of cooking to provide the full benefit of their aromas and flavors.
Some herbs and spices must be used carefully because their dominant flavors can overpower the flavor of the dish.
Use salt and pepper at the beginning of the cooking process to ensure that sauces, butter, or other liquids will not wash off the seasoning. Herbs and Spices A seasoning is something that enhances the flavor of an item without changing the primary flavor of the dish. They must be used with care to prevent overuse, but seasoning generally should be added at the start of the dish to create a depth of flavor.
There are four basic types of seasoning ingredients:
Flavor refers to the way a food tastes, as well as its texture, appearance, doneness, and temperature. A flavoring should enhance the base ingredients of the dish, or it can also bring another flavor to the product. Seasoning and Flavoring Usually, cleaning and cutting raw foods is one of the first steps of mise en place. Fresh vegetables, fruit, and meat often require trimming and cutting.
To use most knives, hold the food on the cutting board with one hand and hold the knife by its handle with the other.
There are three basic knife grips. In every grip, the hand that is not holding the knife, called the guiding hand, prevents slippage and helps to control the size of the cut.
When using a knife, move the knife in a smooth downward and forward slicing motion. With practice, a cook is able to cut food in many different ways, increase knife speed, and become more accurate with cuts. Knife Basics Receiving equipment includes receiving tables/area, scales, and utility carts. After food is received, it is stored on shelving or in refrigerators and freezers.
Pre-preparation equipment includes knives, measuring utensils, hand tools and small equipment, and pots and pans.
Pots come in many shapes and sizes and are made of copper, cast iron, stainless steel, and aluminum, with or without nonstick coating.
Pans also come in many shapes and sizes.
Preparation equipment includes cutters and mixers, steamers, broilers, ranges, griddles, fryers, and ovens.
Holding and serving equipment can include the bain-marie, food warmer/steam table, hot-holding cabinet, coffee maker, tea maker, ice machine, hot box, chafing dishes, and espresso machines. Section 5.1 Summary Once the food arrives in the holding and service area, it is usually ready to be presented to the guest.
Though most of the hard work in preparing a meal has already been done, the final touches made in the holding and service areas are important to delivering a quality meal. Holding and Serving Equipment Using very intense direct heat, broilers cook food quickly. For broilers, the heat source is above the food. Steamers are used in restaurant and foodservice operations to cook vegetables and grains. They allow the food to come into direct contact with the steam, heating the food very quickly. Cooking with steam is a very efficient method of cooking. Steamers & Broilers Cutters and mixers are used to cut meats and vegetables and to mix sauces and batters.
Always use safety guards when using cutting machines.
Employees must be properly trained and informed of all precautionary measures that should be taken when operating the equipment.
It is illegal for minors to use, clean, or maintain cutters or mixers. Processing Equipment:
Cutters and Mixers Measuring utensils are widely used in restaurant and foodservice kitchens to measure everything from spices to liquids to dry goods like oats, grains, sugar, and flour. They can also measure temperature. Measuring Utensils Honing is the regular maintenance required to keep knives in the best shape.
A sharpening stone is used to grind and hone the edges of steel tools and implements.
A steel is a long metal rod that is used to remove the microscopic burrs that are created as a knife is used. Knives & Knife Care (cont.) The receiving area is the first stop in the flow of food. It is where all food deliveries enter the restaurant or foodservice operation.
Before accepting the product, an employee checks the quality and quantity of the items ordered against those being delivered.
After food is delivered and received into the receiving area, it must be stored properly.
Dry goods must be stored at least 6 inches off the floor on stainless-steel shelving.
Perishable goods are stored in refrigerators and freezers. Receiving and
Storage Equipment Chapter 5
Kitchen Essentials: Part 2—Equipment and Techniques A healthy diet emphasizes fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and fat-free or low-fat milk and milk products. It includes lean meats, poultry, fish, beans, eggs, and nuts. It is low in saturated fats, trans fats, cholesterol, salt, and added sugars.
The Dietary Guidelines for Americans offer advice for healthy people over the age of 2 about food choices to promote health and reduce risk for major chronic diseases.
MyPyramid teaches people how to eat a balanced diet from a variety of food groups without counting calories, how to include physical activity in their daily lives, and how to adjust food intake for the amount of activity.
A nutritional label is useful in selecting food for a healthy diet.
Obesity is considered a major health problem. It can be prevented by eating a healthy diet, exercising, and eating fewer calories. Section 5.4 Summary Obesity Each nutrient on the panel is reported as a percentage of Daily Values (DV).
The DVs are provided in percentages based on a 2000-calorie diet.
The mandatory components on the Nutrition Facts label are:
Serving size and servings per container
Total calories and calories from fat
Total fat and saturated fat
Total carbohydrate, dietary fiber, and sugars
Vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium, and iron Nutrition Labels A vegetarian is a person who consumes no meat, fish, or poultry products. There are different types of vegetarians: A vegan follows the strictest diet of all and will consume no dairy, eggs, meat, poultry, fish, or anything containing an animal product or byproduct, including honey. They consume only grains, legumes, vegetables, fruit, nuts, and seeds.
A lacto-vegetarian consumes all the vegan items plus dairy products.
An ovo-vegetarian consumes all vegan foods plus eggs.
A lacto-ovo-vegetarian consumes all the vegan items plus dairy products and eggs. Vegetarian Diets Mise en place is French for “to put in place.”
To use knives properly, hold the food on the cutting board with one hand and hold the knife by its handle with the other.
In every grip, the hand that is not holding the knife prevents slippage and helps to control the size of the cut.
A seasoning is something that enhances the flavor of an item without changing the primary flavor of the dish.
Flavor refers to the way a food tastes, as well as its texture, appearance, doneness, and temperature.
Basic cooking techniques in pre-preparation include separating eggs, whipping egg whites, setting up a bain-marie, making parchment liners for pans, and blanching and shocking. Section 5.2 Summary Getting ready to cook is called mise en place. Mise en place is French for “to put in place.” Mise en place refers to the preparation and assembly of ingredients, pans, utensils, equipment, or serving pieces needed for a particular dish or service.
The goal of pre-preparation is to do as much of the work in advance without any loss in ingredient quality
The basic elements of mise en place—knife cuts, flavorings, herbs and spices, and basic preparations—are the building blocks of a professional chef ’s training. These methods and techniques will be essential throughout a professional career. Mise en Place Every restaurant and foodservice kitchen has small hand tools and small equipment called smallware.
Hand tools are designed to aid in cutting, shaping, moving, or combining foods.
Hand tools are easy to use, and are an essential part of food prepreparation. Hand Tools and Small Equipment There are many types of ovens available to suit a variety of restaurant and foodservice operations. They vary in size and method of operation. The range is usually the most frequently utilized piece of equipment in restaurant and foodservice kitchens. Ranges are cooking units with open heat sources. Ranges come in multiple sizes and variations suitable to the specific needs of an individual operation. Ranges, Griddles, Fryers,
and Ovens Pots and pans are available in many shapes and sizes and are made of a variety of materials, such as copper, cast iron, chrome, stainless steel, and aluminum, with or without nonstick coating.
In general, pots are larger vessels with straight sides and two loop handles. Pans tend to be shallower with one long handle and either straight or sloped sides. Pots and Pans The blade of the knife has several parts: Foodhandlers use knives in most cooking preparations, from slicing to chopping to shredding.
Each knife is designed for a specific purpose.
A good knife is made of stainless steel because it is very durable and stays sharp for a long time.
TA knife has two main parts, the blade and the handle.
he blade is made of metal and is either forged or stamped. Knives & Knife Care Chapter 4 What Does It Mean To Be a Culinary Professional? Courteous Honest Responsible To customers and coworkers Be cautious about sanitation! Leave side towels at your station as well as apron when leaving the kitchen Watch what you wear! Be smart Knowledge Skill Flavor, aroma, taste Judgment Dedication Pride Respect Personal responsibility Education in the culinary professional Would
Have Knives are designed for specific purposes, like paring vegetables, or cutting meat from bone.
Knives can be made of Carbon steel, stainless steel, High-carbon stainless steel, and ceramic. Knives Knives can be made of Carbon steel, stainless steel, High-carbon stainless steel, and ceramic.
Carbon steel—An alloy of carbon and iron, was traditionally used for blades because they were soft enough to be easily sharpened. However it corrodes easily especially with acidic foods
Stainless steel—Will not corrode or discolor and is extremely durable. A stainless blade is much more difficult to sharpen, however once and edge is established it last much longer. High-Carbon Stainless—An alloy combining the best features it will not corrode or discolor and sharpen as easily as carbon steel.
It is the metal most commonly used for knives
Ceramic—A ceramic called zirconium oxide is used to make knife blades that are extremely sharp and stay sharp for many years. But sharpening must be done professionally. They are not flexible, like metal knives and can be easily broken and are very expensive. Types of Knives Basic Knife Cuts
Batonnet Cut slightly thicker than julienne
Brunoise Very small dice
Coarse chop Chopped into rather large, uniform pieces; used for mirepoix
Diagonal Cut into pieces with diagonal edges; often used for stir-fried dishes
Dice Cut into cube-shaped pieces
Julienne Cut into long, thin rectangular pieces
Mince Cut very fine and evenly; used for herbs, shallots, and garlic; the tip of the knife is held against the cutting board while the blade ‘is brought down to cut the food
Slice Cut into large, thin, flat pieces Common Knife Cuts Boning
Utility Butcher-Cutting, sectioning, and trimming raw meats Chef’s or French All purpose-especially for chopping, slicing, and mincing Boning -Separating raw meat from the bone Cleaver-Chopping and cutting through bones Fillet-Filleting fish Paring-Paring, peeling, and trimming vegetables and fruits Serrated slicer-Cutting breads, cakes, and similar items Slicer-Slicing cooked meat Steak-Cutting cooked steak Tourné-Cutting curved surface of vegetables Utility-Light cutting and chopping Good kitchen design=Maximum flow kitchen-brigade system= Makes Makes Makes Size
Varies, but each
piece should be
the same size. Cut
Varies, but each
piece should be the
same size. Cut at an
angle to the food.
Generally 1⁄4” thick. Name
shaped slices Basic Shape
2 to 21/2”x 1/4”x 1/4”
11/2 to 2”x 1/8”x 1/8” Name
Julienne Basic Shape
3/4”x 3/4”x 3/4”
1/2”x 1/2”x 1/2” Name
Medium dice Basic Shape
1/4”x 1/4”x 1/4”
(start with batonnet)
1/8”x 1/8”x 1/8”
(start with julienne) Name
Brunoise Basic Shape
Basic shape depends
on type of vegetable.
Pieces are uniformly
1/2”x 1/2”x 1/8”. Name
Paysanne Basic Shape
Roll leafy greens
or herbs into a tube;
then cut into
thin strips. Name
Chiffonade Basic Shape
Thin Strip - Carbon steel
- Stainless steel
- High carbon stainless
- Ceramics Types of knives Knife parts Tip Spine Bolster lip Blade Handle Bolster Tang Knife warning DO NOT walk your cutting board to a sink with the blade on top and don't leave them soaking in soapy water Smoke point is the tempurature a witch the oil will break down.
Flash point is the tempurature at witch the oil will catch on fire p
s ull the pin im the hose queese the trigger way it