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Using Pupil Premium to narrow the gap.

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Bryony White

on 5 November 2013

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Transcript of Using Pupil Premium to narrow the gap.

Using Pupil Premium to Narrow the Gap.
Scenario 6
Effective Use of Pupil Premium
Using Pupil Premium to Close the Attainment Gap
The Gap Between Rich and Poor
Cultural Capital: Forms of knowledge, skills and advantages that a person has, which gives them a higher status.

"Differences in cultural capital mark the differences between the classes". Bourdieu (1984)
Cultural capital "acts as a barrier to enabling the child to achieve. (Knowles 2011)

"One of the biggest problems facing British schools is the gap between rich and poor, and the enormous disparity in children's home background and the social and cultural capital they bring to the education table." Benn and Miller p.23
Social Mobility Cont.
1967 Plowden Report
1994 Start Right Report
Serious schemes and Initiatives to combat this started in the late 90's with the labour government.

"Schools should be engines of social mobility. They should provide the knowledge, and the tools, to enable talented young people to overcome accidents of birth and an inheritance of disadvantage in order to enjoy greater opportunities." Gove
Narrowing the Gap Before Pupil Premium
Sure Start (1998-Present)
Aimed at giving children the best possible
start in life:
Outreach and home visiting
Family support
Primary and community healthcare and advice
Good quality play, learning and childcare experiences for children, both group and home-based
Support for all children in the community, recognising the differing needs
Since the coalition government took over
there is still support (since 2010) for Sure Start
but funding has been cut (40%) back and 500 centres have been closed
Rich V Poor
Disadvantaged students-

Arrive at school lacking basic social skills
Can't benefit from home learning activities
(ESCR center for life course studies in society and health)

More likely to suffer from an illness
Have a strained family structure
Negative stigma
(The Cambridge Primary Review)
Social Mobility
Social Mobility is the change in social class that someone goes through within their lifetime or compared to their parents.

In the UK we have very little social mobility.
Causa and Johansson (2009)

"...Opportunities such as the ability to buy house in the catchment areas of the bet schools or to afford private education, with advantages for children that continue though and beyond education." Center for Analysis of Social Exclusion, p.398
Bourdieu's - Culture Capital
Socially Just Education System
23% of British schools education spending goes on only 7% of children

Abolishing private schools.
More social mixing

"Difference between schools are minimized, while the diversity within them is maximized." Reay (2012)
Influence of Parents
Pupil Premium
Pupil Premium Funding
What is Pupil Premium for?
What Successful Schools did
What hasn't worked in schools
Hard-to-Reach Parents
Reasons Behind Hard-to-Reach Parents
Single Parents:
Work Long Hours

Threatened or humiliated
Negative feedback
New methods of teaching
Negative Experiences

EAL parents:
Trouble understanding

Bibliography (1)
Bibliography (2)
By Bryony Richards-White,
Robert Bridle & Jack Bunker

2011-12 -> 2.3 million UK children lived in relative poverty.
Social class is the strongest predictor of educational attainment in Britain.
Cassen and Kingdon (2007), Dyson et al (2010), National Equality Panel (2010)
"close association between poverty and low educational achievement, with pupils from low income backgrounds pupils continuing to perform less well than more advantaged pupils."~OFSTED
81% of the richest mothers want their 9 year old's to go to university.
37% of the poorest mothers want their 9 year old's to go to university. (2010 ESRC Research)

79% of children with degree educated parents obtained at least 5 GCSE's at A*-C grades.
33% of children whose parents left school without O Levels or equivalent received at least 5 GCSE's at A*-C grades.
The home learning environment.
Quality of parent- child linguistic and social interactions.
Every Child Matters (2003-2010)
5 Key aspects-
Be healthy
Stay safe
Achieve Economic Well-being
Make a positive contribution to society
Enjoy and achieve through learning.
A duty on local authorities to make arrangements to cooperate.
No longer officially government policy.
Other Agencies-
Extra Mile, Aim Higher, Excellence in cities, Pure Potential, Sutton Trust
Future Leaders, Absolute Return for Kids (ARK), Social Mobility Foundation, City Challenge, Pure Potential.
Gains seem relatively small and costs substantial. Kerr and West (2012)
Focus on raising aspirations or just focusing on higher achieving disadvantaged students. Perry and Francis (2010)
Attainment gap an international phenomenon Kerr and West (2010)
UK V Others

Virtually no private school sector (only 2%)
99.2% of primary and secondary educational expenditure was publicly funded.
No inspection system, national test or league tables.
Far higher levels of literacy and numeracy than the UK.
Difference between schools is miniscule.
Introduced in April 2011.
Pupil Premium is aimed at children on Free School Meals. (Ever6 FSM)
Continuously in Care for 6 months or more.
Children whose parents serve in the armed forces.
2011-2012 -£625m- £488 per child
2012-2013 -£1.25bn - £623 per child
2013-2014 -£1.875bn- £900 per child
2014-2015 -£2.5bn - £1300 per child

Service children- Receive (ever 3 service)
2011-2012 -£200 per child
2012-2013 -£250 per child
2013-2014 -£300 per child

£50M set aside for a summer programme
The Finnish Educational System
All teachers, even primary teachers, are educated to masters level and spend 5 years in university
Their classrooms are a more relaxed environment, and classes are less teacher led.
Very holistic approach to learning and education
Government given emphasis on supporting every child regardless of their background.
Classrooms are very interactive- children are encouraged to challenge the teachers.
Class sizes are between 15-25
Teaching assistants
Ability grouping
Reducing primary class size (except in reception)
Performance related pay for teachers
Improving school buildings
“Schools need to know that, in assessing their performance OFSTED will be looking forensically at how well their Pupil Premium pupils do. … The message should be clear: if a school’s Pupil Premium population is failing, more likely than not the whole school will be judged to be failing.” Nick Clegg May 2012

From September 2013 schools that are identified by OFSTED as 'requiring improvement' -> Outstanding leader of education.

Schools have to publish online how they use Pupil Premium
The process to close the gap...

Parents involvement in schools

Parental involvement with children's education, especially within the context of the school, has been positively linked to the child's achievement. McWayne et al (2004)

Research shows that children who have involved parents in their education are likely to do 15% better no matter what their background is. DFES (2003)

Family involvement in school matters far more for children from low income families. Journal of Educational psychology (2006)
What are the Effective Ways of Spending Pupil Premium?
Parents v. School Trips
Engaging Hard-to-Reach Parents
Sending home good news letters
Create a welcoming environment for parents
Encourage support at home through free workshops and courses
Bring the parents in when writing the school behaviour rules
Observe teaching
Pupil Premium is very new so its effectiveness is still hard to measure.
Pupil Premium is in the early stage and schools have had trouble implementing it effectively.
2011 -
58% on FSM achieved the Level required at the end of KS2
78% achieved the level who are not on FSM
2012 -
66% on FSM achieved the level required at the end of KS2
82% achieved the level that are not on FSM
Why Pupil Premium?
At school entry, low income children lag behind high income children by 16 months in vocabulary.
58% of pupils on FSM achieved the expected level in both Maths and English by the end of primary school compared with 78% of other pupils.
Around 23,000 children leave primary school with reading, writing and mathematical skills at the level of a 7 year old or below.
Pupils eligible for FSM are 5 times more likely to be excluded from primary school.
35% of pupils on FSM achieved 5 good GCSE grades compared with 62% of other pupils.
DfE (2012), Oxford school Improvement (2012)
Impact of the Funding
OFSTED survey of 262 schools in May 2012

1 in 10 said Pupil Premium significantly changed the way they worked.
50% of schools thought it was having a positive impact on raising pupil achievement.
A lot of schools used Pupil Premium funding to maintain or enhance existing provisions.

FSM group not necessarily the most disadvantaged group.
Extra Pupil Premium funding does not make up for the real term cuts to the ordinary school budget.
Institute for Fiscal Studies (2011)

FSM the best available indicator of socio-economic background.
The Centre for analysis of social exclusion (2010)
OFSTED: pupil premium 'failing to raise standards'
Sir Michael Wilshaw- Chief Inspector of OFSTED giving his opinion on Pupil Premium effectiveness.
School Trips
Benefits children's self-esteem and confidence levels.
Culturally enriching

"Field trips are one effective way to provide the real thing and the real life experience, they provide the mass that is missing in many classrooms and subjects that are being taught and they can help close an experience gap that certainly is an contributing factor in creation of the achievement gap."
Applied Scholastic International 2013
Hard-to-Reach Parents Vs School Trips
We believe that engaging hard-to-reach parents is more enriching to a child and is more likely to close the attainment gap than spending the money on schools trips.
Longer term benefits of engaging hard-to-reach parents.
Every child is unique and different strategies work for different children.
Amongst many other things the successful schools:
Made sure funding was always spent on the target groups
Allocated the best teachers to teach intervention groups
Gave/ give clear systematic feedback
Clear policy on the spending of pupil premium and published it on the website
Used achievement data to frequently assess whether their intervention programmes were working
Made sure they did their research on which strategies worked best.
Used strategies like effective feedback, metacognition and self-regulation, peer tutoring, early intervention, one-to-one tutoring, ICT, phonics, and parental involvement.
Effective Feedback
Meta-cognition and Self-regulation
Parental Involvement
Reducing Class Size
School Trips (Including Outdoor Adventure Learning)
Teaching Assistants
Education Endowment Foundation
Most Effective Ways of Using Pupil Premium
1. Effective Feedback
2. Meta-cognition and Self-regulation
3. Phonics
4. Parental Involvement
5. Reducing Class Size
6. School Trips (including Outdoor Adventure Learning)
7. Teaching Assistants

• Adams, M. Bell, L. A. and Griffen, P. (ed) (2007) Teaching for diversity and social justice, New York: Routledge.

Discuss Bourdieu’s theory that some groups keep other groups down and picture of Bourdieu.

• Applied Scholastics International (2013) Can School Field Trips Help Close the Achievement Gap?. Available at: http://www.sacbee.com/2013/10/15/5822394/can-school-field-trips-help-close.html (Accessed on 10 October 2013)

Information on school trips and Quote and pictures of school trip and school.

• Ball, C. (1994) Start Right: The Importance of Early Learning. London: Royal Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce
The problem with social mobility has been around for a long time.
• Benn, M. and Millar, F. (2006) A comprehensive Future: Quality and equality for all our children. London: Compass

Quote on social mobility.

• Bourdieu, P. (1984) Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste. Cambridge: Harvard University Press
Information on culture capital.
• Cambridge Primary Review Trust (2013) The Cambridge Primary Review – Final Report. Available at: http://www.primaryreview.org.uk/downloads/Finalreport/CPR-booklet_low-res.pdf (Accessed on 03 October 2013)
The problems children living in ‘poverty’ suffer from.
• Cassen, R. Kingdon, G. (2007) Tackling Low Educational Achievement. Available at: http://www.jrf.org.uk/sites/files/jrf/2063-education-schools-achievement.pdf (Accessed on 07 October 2013)
Social class is the strongest predictor of attainment.
• Causa, O. and Johansson, A. (2009) Intergenerational Social Mobility in OECD Countries. Available at: http://www.oecd.org/eco/growth/49849281.pdf (Accessed on 10 October 2013)

The lack of social mobility in countries.

• Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion (2010) An Anatomy of Economic Inequality in the UK – summary report of the national Equality Panel. Available at: www.sticerd.lse.ac.uk/case (Accessed on: 05 October 2013)

FSM is the best indicator of Socio-economic background and quote on the catchment areas and where to live.

• Dahl, G.B. and Lochner, L. (2005) The impact of family income on child achievement. Available at: http://www.nber.org/papers/w11279 (Accessed: 03 October, 2013)

The link between family income and children’s language and literacy has been established and the picture of family reading.

• Dearden, L., Sibieta, L. & Sylva, K. (2010) ‘From Birth to Age 5: Evidence from the Millennium Cohort Study’, in Goodman, A. and Gregg, P. (ed) Poorer Children’s Educational Attainment: How Important are Attitudes and Behaviour?. London: Rowntree Foundation, pp. 18–25.

How parental involvement doesn’t impact on closing the gap.
• Department for Education. (2012) Pupil Premium Case Studies: Engaging hard-to-reach parents. Available at: www.education.gov.uk/schools/pupilsupport/premium/how/b00218327/pupilpremiumcasestudies/engaginghardtoreachparents (Accessed on 10 October 2013)
Ideas on what to do with hard-to-reach parents.
• Department for Education (2011) Government announces pupil premium to raise achievement. Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/news/government-announces-pupil-premium-to-raise-achievement (Accessed on 11 October 2013)
Quote by Michael Gove on Social Mobility
• Department for Education (2013) Sure Start children’s centres statutory guidance For local authorities, commissioners of local health services and Jobcentre Plus. Available at: http://media.education.gov.uk/assets/files/pdf/s/childrens%20centre%20stat%20guidance%20april%202013.pdf (Accessed on 15 October 2013)
Information on Sure Start and picture of Sure Start logo.
• Department for Education (2013) Data, Research and Statistics. Attainment Gaps at ages 11, 16, and 19. Available at: http://www.education.gov.uk/researchandstatistics/statistics/keystatistics/b00214299/attainment-gap-at-ages-11-16-and-19 (Accessed on 10 October 2013)
Information on the attainment gap in 2011 and 2012.

• Dyson, A. Goldrick, S. Jones, L. and Kerr, K. (2010) Equity in Education: creating a fairer education system. Manchester: Centre for Equity in Education, University of Manchester.
Social class is the strongest predictor of attainment.
• Economic and Social Research Council (2012) Children’s education crucial for social mobility. Available at: www.jrf.org.uk/publications/educational-attainment-poor-children (Accessed on 10 October 2013)
Information on parent’s aspirations on children going to university.
• Econimic and Social Research Council (2012) Education vital for Social Mobility. Available at: www.esrc.ac.uk/about-ersc/what-we-do/our-research (Accessed on 08 October 2013)
Parent’s education link to children’s education.
• Education Endowment Foundation (2013) Toolkit. Available at: http://educationendowmentfoundation.org.uk/toolkit/ (Accessed on 03 October 2013)
List of the more effective ways of using Pupil Premium and a picture of the Education Endowment Foundation logo.
• Field, S. Kuczero, M. and Pont, B.(2007) No More Failures: Ten Steps to Equity in Education. Available at: http://www.oecd.org/edu/school/39989494.pdf (Accessed on 05 October 2013)
Information on the Finnish education system.
• Hartas, D. (2012) ‘Inequality and the home learning environment: predictions about seven-year-olds ‘language and literacy’. British Educational Research Journal, 38 (5), pp. 859-879

Quote on parental lack of education. The home learning environment on the attainment of children.
• Institute for Fiscal Studies. The pupil premium: more cash for poor pupils but is it worth the cost?. Available at: http://www.ifs.org.uk/pr/pupil_premium.pdf (Accessed on 25 October 2013)
How pupil premium is plugging the gaps.
• Joseph Rowntree Foundation (2013) What can we do to end child poverty?. Available at: http://www.jrf.org.uk/work/workarea/child-poverty (Accessed on 10 October 2013)
2.3 million children live in relative poverty.

• KeywordPictures (No date) Soldier Picture. Available at: http://www.keywordpicture.com/keyword/pic%20of%20soldier/ (Accessed on 15 October 2013)
Picture of a soldier.
• Knowles, G. and Lander, V. (2011) Diversity, Equality and achievement in Education. Sage: London.
Quote on barriers for children to achieve.
• Mason, R. (2012) ‘Ofsted: pupil premium 'failing to raise standards'’, The Telegraph, 20 September [online]. Available at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/education/educationnews/9554767/Ofsted-pupil-premium-failing-to-raise-standards.html (Accessed on 20 October 2013)

Video by Michael Wilshaw talking about the effectiveness of Pupil Premium and picture of Michael Gove.
• McWayne, C., Hampton, V., Fantuzzo, J., Cohen, H.L. and Sekino, Y. (2004) ‘A Multivariate Examination of Parent Involvement and the Social and Academic Competencies of Urban Kindergarten Children’, Psychology in the Schools, 41, pp. 363–377

How parental involvement with children’s education, especially in the context
of the school, has been positively linked to children’s achievement
• National Equality Panel (2010) An Anatomy of Economic Inequality in the UK. London: Government Equalities Office
Social class is the strongest predictor of attainment.
• The National Evaluation of Sure Start (NESS) The impact of Sure Start Local Programmes on seven year olds and their families. Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/184073/DFE-RR220.pdf (Accessed on: 11 October 2013)

To show the positive impact of Sure Start.

• OECD (2009) PIsa Results. Paris: OECD Publishing

Information on the educational spending in England.

• OECD (2010) Finland: Slow and Steady Reform for Consistently High Results. Available at: www.oecd.org/dataoecd/34/44/46581035.pdf (Accessed on 10 October 2013)

Lack of social mobility in countries. Information on the Finnish school system.

• OECD (2005) Economic Policy Reforms: Going for Growth. Available at: www.oecd.org/economics/goingforgrowth (Accessed on 05 October 2013)
Information on Finnish school system.
• Office for Standards in Education (OFSTED) (2008) White Boys from Low-income Backgrounds: Good Practise in Schools. London: OFSTED

Social Mobility OFTSED quote

• Office for Standards in Education (OFSTED) (2012) The Pupil Premium – How Schools are using the Pupil Premium funding to raise achievement for disadvantaged pupils. Available at: www.ofsted.gov.uk/resources/120197 (Accessed on 10 October 2013)
Survey of 262 schools on how they are using pupil premium
• Office for Standards in Education (OFSTED) (2012) The Pupil Premium – How Schools are spending the funding successfully to maximise achievement. Available at: http://www.ofsted.gov.uk/resources/pupil-premium-how-schools-are-spending-funding-successfully-maximise-achievement (Accessed on 03 October 2013)
Effective ways and non-effective ways of using pupil premium and OFSTED logo and picture of Michael Gove.
• Office for Standards in Education (OFSTED) (2009) Twenty Outstanding Primary Schools – Excelling Against the Odds. Available at: http://www.ofsted.gov.uk/resources/twenty-outstanding-primary-schools-excelling-against-odds (Accessed on 03 October 2013)
What works for primary schools in closing achievement.
• Oxford School Improvement (2012) The Pupil Premium – Making it work in your school. Available at: http://fds.oup.com/www.oup.com/pdf/oxed/primary/pupilpremiumreport.pdf (Accessed on 03 October 2013)
Information and statistics on the difference between low income families and high income families. What is effective and what isn’t in schools. The process involved in closing the gap. Information on effective parental engagement.
• Oxford School Improvement (2013) Pupil Premium – Making it Work in your School. Available at: https://global.oup.com/education/content/primary/key-issues/pupil-premium/?region=uk# (Accessed 15 October 2013)
Video by Jean Gross on effectively using Pupil Premium and a picture of Jean Gross.

• Pekkarinen, T. Pekkala, S. and Roope, U. (2006) Education Policy and Intergenerational Income Mobility from the Finnish Comprehensive School Reform, Available at: http://ftp.iza.org/dp2204.pdf (Accessed on 17 October 2013)

Nordic school system has no setting and streaming.

• Perry, E. and Francis, B. (2010) The Social Class Gap For Educational achievement: A review of the literature. Available at: http://www.thersa.org/__data/assets/pdf_file/0019/367003/RSA-Social-Justice-paper.pdf (Accessed on 10 October 2013)
Information on the charities and schemes before pupil premium.
• Plowden Report (1967) Children and their primary schools - Report of the General Advisory Council (England). London: HMSO.
The problem with social mobility has been around for a long time.
• Reay, D. (2012) What would A Socially Just Education System Look Like. Available at: http://classonline.org.uk/docs/2012_Diane_Reay_-_a_socially_just_education_system.pdf (Accessed on 10 October 2013)
Quote on minimizing differences to become more socially Just.
• Reay, D, Crozier, G and D James. (2011) White Middle Class Identities and Urban Schooling. London: Palgrave

White middle class children are put into different sets at school.

• Social Mobility and Child Poverty Commission (2013) Social Mobility: The Next Steps. Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/238789/Social_mobility_the_next_steps.pdf (Accessed on 25 October 2013)

How pupil premium might be extended to the nursery school and picture of Nick Clegg.

• The Stationary Office (20023) Every child matters. Available at: https://www.education.gov.uk/consultations/downloadableDocs/EveryChildMatters.pdf (Accessed on 15 October 2013)

Information on Every Child Matters and the Every Child Matters logo.

• Sylva, K., Melhuish, E.C., Sammons, P., Siraj-Blatchford, I. and Taggart, B. (2008) Final report from the primary phase: Pre-school, school and family influences on children’s development during Key Stage 2 (7–11). Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/222225/DCSF-RR061.pdf (Accessed : 03 October 2013)

How home environment adds to the gap.

• Teachman, J. D. (1987) Family Background, educational resources, and educational attainment. American Sociological Review. 52, pp. 548-57

Information on families influence on children.

• University of Wisconsin, (No date) College Tips From J.T. Available at: http://www.uwlax.edu/wisconsincovenant/jttips.htm (Accessed on 12 October 2013)

Picture of man with money bag.

• Wilkinson, R. and Pickett, K. (2010) The Spirit Level – Why Equality is Better for Everyone. London: Penguin
Graph on the gap in attainment in UK and other countries.
Full transcript