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Modals

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by

Mary Feerick

on 17 November 2014

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Transcript of Modals

MODAL VERBS
photo credit Nasa / Goddard Space Flight Center / Reto Stöckli
Possibility
Ability
Advice
Obligations
Prohibition
Premission
Requests
When are Modal Verbs used?
Modal Verb + infinitive (without "to")
Structure

COULD
MAY
MIGHT
Possibility
in the present
and
future
Modals of
Possibility
"He
could
go
to school"
"He
might
go
to school"
"He
may
go to school"
Note the difference:
Permission
or
Polite Request
Polite Request/Premission
Use as a
QUESTION

e.g. "Could I have your
name ad address, please?"
"Could I join you?"
Synonomous as "can",
but more polite.
COULD
MAY
Request/Permission
Use as QUESTION
e.g.
"May I have your name and address, please?
"May I join you?
Formal.
"Pigs can fly!"
CAN
What is the difference between
these two questions?
FOOD FOR
THOUGHT
CAN
Permission/Request
Use as a
QUESTION


e.g. "Can I join you?"
"Can you help me?"
May

I go to the toilet?
Can

I go to the toilet?
Obligation
Use must to talk about:
rules and laws
obligations
a need to do something.
"I must finish my
work by today"
MUST
to say what is necessary to do
to give advice
to talk about duty
"I should finish my
work today."
SHOULD

Promise/Offer

"I shall finish my
work today"
SHALL
COULD
"I think pigs
could fly"
Present Ability
Past Ability
The Spectrum: Degree of Necessity
Should
Ought to
MUST
Have to
OUGHT TO
(same as Should but less
common).
"I ought to finish
my work by today"
Don´t Have to
Prediction
"The world
might/may end
in 2012"
MIGHT/MAY
SHALL
"The world shall end in 2012"
WILL
"The world
will end in
2012"
MAY
MIGHT
The Spectrum:
Degree of
Predictability
SHALL
WILL
Highly predicted
Uncertain prediction
What are the important types of modality for
expository essays
?
Degrees of Possibility
Ability
Obligation
Modal verbs do not change form.
She cans swim.
We use this when we want
to talk about the chance of
something being true.
"It is possible that...."
Advance your English
Use:
Must
Have to
to show certainty, or belief of certainty.
e.g.
He must be at school.
He has to be at school.
Past Possibility
May, Might, and Could are all used to show possibility in the past.
Here is the structure:

Modal Verb + Have + Past Participle
He might have gone to school.


One day we will be able to live on the moon.
He wasn´t able to finish the race.
Astronauts are able to stay on space stations for a long time.
Be able to
Is similar to "can" but can be used
in past, present and future.
Have to
= must.

Less formal than must and is
used more in conservations.
Note:
Don´t have to is
NOT
the same as
mustn´t.
You mustn´t walk on the grass.
You don´t have to walk on
the grass.

Note:
Use can´t instead of mustn´t to talk about things you are not allowed to do.
e.g. I can´t go with you.



(
Could not
is not normally used to
express negative possbility).
Use Might when something is less likely.

I will see you later.
I may see you later.

They won´t be at the party tomorrow.
They might not be at the party tomorrow.
?
?
Indicates
Ability
Could
Was/were able to
Can
Be able to
Present Ability
Can
Will be able to
Future Ability
Can can be used for
future ability if we are talking
about a possible plan.
E.g.
I can´t meet Ted today
but I can see him
tomorrow.
Past Ability
Advance your language
If you want to be very polite, you can make
requests
with:
Do you think you could...?
Could you possibly...?
Do/Would you mind + verb + ing....?
Other ways of asking
permission
without using a modal verb are:
Do you mind if......?
Is it all right if.......?
Promise
Had better
Had better can also be
used to give
strong
advice
or orders.
e.g.
You´d better listen to me!
Mustn´t/ Can´t
Used to express:
prohibitions
or that something is not right.
There is no past or future form of must.
Don´t have to/needn´t
Express:
lack of obligation
Something that is not necessary.
Past obligations:
had to
needed to
Future obligations:
will have to
Needn´t
Mustn´t
Can´t
Full transcript