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Transcript of Group Dynamics
M3 Explain four factors which influence group dynamics and performance in team sports
D2 Analyse four factors which influence group dynamics and performance in team sports
Steiner's Model of Group Effectiveness
Actual productivity = potential productivity – losses due to faulty group process
Ringelmann stated that as group size increased, productivity decreased. This could be as much as 50% in some circumstances. The study comprised individuals pulling on a rope to calculate strength, then combining as a team to complete the same task. Motivational losses are generally the cause as players try to 'hide'.
Where members of the group do not put in 100%. This is usually due to their efforts not being recognised by others or if they believe the group can manage without them.
People who display this trait are often anxious, don't feel useful, lack confidence and/or fear failure.
Interactive v Co-active groups
Interactive groups are teams/groups that have to communicate to produce a final product e.g. football, rugby & basketball.
Co-active groups are teams/groups that have limited communication between them during competition e.g. the GB Olympic squad or a swim team.
Task v Social Cohesion
Work together to achieve common goals.
How well team members work together.
Creating an effective team
A group process looks at the different factors that affect groups and teams.
This could be how a team forms (and stays together), how effective they are and any other factors that bind the group together.
Tuckman's Theory of Group Development
Theory looks at how a group forms and develops.
This theory has four stages to it.
Early stages where members of the group require support. Trust bonds begin to develop and base expectations are set.
Members of the group vie to be leader and conflicts arise. Members of the group start to become more independent.
Once at this stage the group start to make decisions together. Members are happy to take on specific roles within the group and agree on solutions to problems.
The group performs like a true team. They are effective in their decision making to bring about a positivie conclusion. The group have strong friendship bonds. Members can work truly independently.
How the group or team perform (the results they get, the level of performance or any successes).
The perfect performance that the team or group can produce.
Losses due to Faulty Processes
Problems that can occur during performance. These can be co-ordination or motivational problems, such as not trying your hardest and poor communication or tactics. Team games suffer more faulty processes.
What is a group?
What makes something a group?
What makes a successful group?
According to Carron (1980) a group has the following characteristics:
- A collective identity
- A sense of shared purpose
- Structured patterns of communication
A successful team maximises these characteristics
Successful teams also have strong cohesion. Cohesion is the motivation that keeps the members together, i.e. stops them from breaking up
Members may wish to be in a group because of the success it brings them and/or they value the relationships within the group.
Which will suffer from the most co-ordination losses?
Some web-links that might help you:
Which is most important?
Enjoy each others company.
Enjoyment not based on results
What are the different types of groups?
With your partner/team come up with a description as to what an interactive and co-active group is.
Is there a link?
Promoting Task and Social Cohesion
Task Cohesion can be promoted by creating team goals which all team members are aware of, value, and strive for.
Social Cohesion can be encouraged by creating opportunities for social development (i.e. an interesting and enjoyable environment where players interact positively which each other, make friends and have fun.
There are a number of ways you can encourage a good team environment.
Key #1: Treat every player as an equal contributor to the team.
It is easy for coaches to favor those that they see as more athletic or more talented, but every player can bring something to the team and should be treated as such. This has nothing to do with playing time on the field or court, but solely in how a coach relates to their players, both on and off the field. This equal treatment will help each player feel good about themselves and help extinguish any unnecessary jealous behavior.
Key #2: Encourage friendships.
A great way to do this is to host a picnic, barbecue or party of some sort. Let everyone get to know each other in a different setting other than the athletic field. If everyone is friendly with each other and relaxed, this should spill over to game time, allowing everyone to work together more effectively.
Key #3: Incorporate some trust building activities during practice times.
There are a lot of great trust building activities out there, many that are often used for teens or even the corporate workforce. Some great ideas would be the wall climb, getting everyone over a wall without any step stools, ladders, etc. This encourages everyone to work together to problem solve. Other games can be scavenger hunts, trust fall (trusting your teammates to catch you if you fall) and the toxic river game, getting a pail of water over the "toxic" river without falling in, or spilling the water. All games help to build relationships, which will ultimately help with building effective and harmonious sports teams
Key #4: Use inspirational quotes and stores.
These can be found on line or in the library. Inspirational quotes or stories are a great way to help motivate. It may only take one quote or story to fully touch someone, but it is important to always find new ones to share. Create posters with the sayings to hang in locker rooms, or use index cards to display.
Key #5: Volunteer as a team.
This is an excellent way to help the community as a team, and will build relationships with teammates while doing so. Volunteer to help feed homeless, assist at the animal shelter run in a charity race, or participate in any charity that is important in your area or to your team. Volunteering is always a great way to help people come together.
Factors Affecting Group Cohesion
Carron also outlined the factors which can affect the development of group cohesion:
– general factors that bind a player to a team, e.g. contracts, scholarships, location, etc.
– individual characteristics of group members, e.g. level of motivation
– include the behaviour of coaches and leaders, e.g. leadership style, etc.
– involve group characteristics, e.g. group size, group stability, etc
Treat all player’s equally (avoid star system)
Keep contracts similar
Find individual motives for participation
Develop ‘ownership’ within players
Mentor system – older vs. younger players
Encourage effective communication
Setting challenging group goals
Individual roles within the team should be created
Team identity encouraged through rewards/punishments
Pick a number out of the 'hat'. Join with the rest of the people with the same number.
In your group construct the tallest tower out of spaghetti and marshmallows.
If you picked 'observer' speak to me.
Who took the lead and gave out most orders?
Why might this person have taken the lead?
Who did not really contribute to the group?
Why might this person have 'taken a back seat'?
How would the group have been more effective?
How might they improve next time?
In your group you must make a paper aeroplane to fly against the other team.
The winner is the team who's plane flies the furthest.
Lost on the Moon
Complete the task with your group
You have 5 minutes to complete the task.