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Mind and Body: National Curriculum

Assignment 2

Thea Brookes

on 21 February 2013

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Transcript of Mind and Body: National Curriculum

Physical Education
in the National Curriculum My National Curriculum
Focus Mind, Body & Sport MBS National Curriculum Tackle
Childhood Obesity Female Participation & Inclusion Enriching
the Curriculum why is PE in the
National Curriculum? Philosophers that have influenced
my curriculum Healthy Living Knowledge & Understanding
of the
mind and body Life Long Participation LITERATURE... REFERENCES... 2008/09 studies show that, in England:
More than 1 in 5 (22.8%) children in reception are overweight or obese.
Almost 1 in 3 (32.6%) children in year 6 are either overweight or obese.
(McBride, 2010)
The Department of Health (2012) showed that in 2010:
30.3% of children (2-15) were overweight or obese
62.8% of children (16+) were overweight or obese

being physically active produces precisely the same health related benefits from physical activity for children and adolescents as for adults (Boreham & Riddoch, 2001) Alderson, J. and Crutchley, D. (1990) 'Physical Education and the national curriculum', In Armstrong, N. (Eds) New Directions in Physical Education 1. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.37-62.
Bailey, R., Armour, K., Kirk, D., Jess, M., Pickup, I., and Sandford, R. (2008) Research Papers in Education. The educational benefits claimed for physical education and school sport: an academic review.
Boreham, C. and Riddoch, C. (2001) The Physical Activity, fitness and health of children. Journal of sports sciences. 19 (12). 915
Curtner-Smith, M. D, (1999). The More Things Change the More Things Stay the Same: Factors Influencing Teachers interpretations and Delivery of National Curriculum Physical Education. Sport Education and Society. 4 (1). 74-97
Department of Health (2012) Facts and figures of obesity. [Online] Available from: http://www.dh.gov.uk/health/2012/04/obesityfacts/ [Accessed 20th January
Flintoff, A (2001) Stepping into Active Leisure? Young Women's Perceptions of Active Lifestyles and their Experiences of School Physical Education. 6 (1) 5.
Green, K (2012) Conference with Ken Green at the University of Worcester. 21st November 2012.
Green, K. (2008) Understanding Physical Education. [e-book]. London: Sage.
Jones, R., and Cheetham, R. (2001) Physical Education in the National Curriculum: Its Purpose and Meaning for Final Year Secondary School Students. European Journal of Physical Education. 6 (2).
Lara-Sanchez, A., Zagalaz-Sanchez, M., Martinez-Lopez, E., and Berdejo-Del-Frenso, D. (2010) Non- Traditional Sports at Schools. Benefits for Physical and Motor Development. Journal of Physical Education and Sport. 28. 4
McBride, D. (2010) Childhood obesity. Practice Nurse. 39 (11), 40.
McNamee, M. (2005) 'The Nature and Values of Physical Education', In Green, K. and Hardman, K. (Eds), Physical Education: Essential Issues. London: Sage, 1-20.
Pearson Education (2012) BTEC Nationals from 2010 | Sport. [Online] Available from: http://www.edexcel.com/quals/nationals10/sport/Pages/default.aspx [Accessed 15th January 2013]
Ratcliff, M. (2007) Disability Discrimination Act. Contract Journal. 439 (6636). 18
Scheerder, J., Thomis, M., Vanreusel, B., Lefevre, J., Renson, R., Vanden Eynde, B., and Beunen, G. (2006) Sports Participation Among Females From Adolescence To Adulthood: A Longitudinal Study. International Review for the Sociology of Sport. 41. 413.
Staffo, D. F. (1991) From Team Sports to Fitness for Everyone. Educational Leadership. 48 (6) 77.
Sydner, Sprietzer (1977) Handbook of social Science of Sport. Sport Education and Schools. Champaign, IL: Stipes. Siedentop (1994) Curtner-Smith (1999) Physical Education Mind Map
What PE means to me... Sport Education INCLUSION Years 7, 8 and 9:
Enrichment Day
1 day every half term focusing on different subjects (e.g. healthy living, diet, smoking, exercise, ICT sessions, team building exercises and the chance to go to a local sports club and participate in sports that they would not do usually do in lessons)
Rotates days of the week so it does not affect the same lessons each time

I do not plan to take away practical time as that may be the only time they do Physical activity.
They also have time table restrictions so they are unable to have as much practical time as GCSE students.

Teach sport psychology, physiology, personal training, fitness and health and first aid (leave school with a first aid qualification)

Combine GCSE aspects of BTEC / A level - for KS4
so the gap between GCSE and A level is smaller.
Teachers expect them to know the standard sports so let them get on with it.
They don't ask them what they want to do, they teach what they were taught (Flintoff, 2001)

All students - including special needs students - are encouraged to develop skills in a number of lifetime sports so the will become physically active adults, not sedentary nonparticipants (Staffo, 1991)

Green (2012) states that if children are active in at least 3 sports by the age of 16 then they will be still be active by 30.

Females with a non-competitive style appear to be more likely to continue involvement in leisure-time sports than females with a competitive style. (Scheerder et al, 2006) Bring Back School
Sports Coordinator's!!!! Sports to Incorporate within the curriculum... By involving children in a number of physical activities, there is a belief that they will achieve valuable educational needs (Alderson & Crutchley, 1990: 38-40) There has been pressure upon Physical Educationalists to distinguish between the practical performance of physical activities that are typically associated in PE and the academic or theoretical knowledge which these activities are claimed to be a vehicle for. (Green, 2008)
Bailey et al (2008) claims that PE branches into other areas as it enhances cognitive and social development and self confidence which aids academic achievement in many aspects of the curriculum.
A child's perception of PE is often recreational as they do not understand its educational purpose about why it is in the National Curriculum. Snyder & Sprietzer (1977) state that PE can help stimulate and support intellectual development in children; "a healthy body leads to a healthy mind" Jones & Cheetham (2001)
PE has been philosophically under valued as it is classed as non-academic, thus non-educational. (McNamee, 2005) When composing a national curriculum, it is important to reflect upon previous experiences as they all influence on what to teach and how to teach it. MIND MAP Sound Sight Touch Taste Smell Whistles
Balls Bouncing
Music - Dance lessons
Bleep Tests
Old school films What is PE? Confidence
Running around
Playing Games
Female Participation
Role Models Salt
Salt Water
Lucozade Football
Tennis balls
Bibs Whistles
Balls Bouncing
Music - Dance lessons
Bleep Tests
Old school films My Personal Experience of Physical Education Female Participation: fairly good but not a lot of contribution by many
Focused quite a lot on gifted and talented
Didn't have many sessions regarding healthy lifestyle and importance of physical activity in KS3
Competitive: Not everybody enjoyed the competitive nature of PE, some preferred to be independent.
Girls did not enjoy sports lessons with the boys AIMS & AMBITIONS Need to make sure that children understand how our actions affect our bodies

Healthy lifestyle, fitness and health will all be incorporated within the curriculum. Children will be aware of the dangers of being overweight and the consequences of obesity.

Children will be encouraged to participate in activities during PE lessons and after school extra curricular activities. These sessions will not be strictly aimed at team training for competitions but for the pure fact of participation and life long learning. Team training will have a set weekly schedule

The main aim for tackling obesity will be to encourage life long participation A typical BTEC in sport focuses on Units in, for example:
Health and Fitness
Practical Performance
Mind and Body in Sport
Analysis of performance
Personal training
Leading Sports Activities
Sports Psychology
Pearson Education (2012) All of the above modules will be examples of what will be taught in the GCSE curriculum to challenge the students and give them an insight to A Level PE. LITERATURE... Inclusive Sports Enhance Female Participation DISABILITY Why include it... What is it... How does it link... The Problem... How to change it... How does it link... BRING BACK SSCo's!!!! Acquire more funding from the government!

This has been a huge year for Sport: Olympics, Ryder Cup and Tour de France etc.

This is the perfect time to encourage children to put down there video consoles and get ACTIVE!

It is important to encourage pupils to participate when they are young as this will enhance chances of life long participation

Physical Education may be the only time for some children to be active so we need to make sure it is promoted!

The government say that they want children to become more active to lower obesity levels but yet they take away the funding for physical education in schools?.... DISABILITY INCLUSION...

The inclusion of disability within the curriculum will benefit everybody.

Children will understand how to respect one another and those who are lesser able.

Disabled pupils are able to participate with able bodied children and work together to develop an understanding of how disabled sports are played. Aims & Ambitions My Personal Philosophy Girls need to participate in activities which appeal to them

Lessons will start with a focus on a particular role model in each sport, so the girls become familiar with the growing success of female sports stars.

The curriculum provides sports such as movement activities (yoga, dance, pilates, aerobics, zumba, judo and taekwondo). These activities are performed individually or as a group and the majority are considered to be not competitive. The main focus is to develop strength and conditioning and build a healthy active lifestyle

Teach a array of sports to improve student satisfaction and to enhance variation within the curriculum.

Non-traditional sports can develop physical and social skills and can help make the learning process more motivating and interesting for pupils (Lara-Sanchez, 2010) I believe that physical education is one of the most important and beneficial subjects of the national curriculum. Physical Education allows children to take learning from a classroom and apply it to a physical situation. They are able to put theory into practice which a lot of other subjects can not offer.

Physical Education should be fun, educational and inclusive for everybody. There is always a role that someone can do, whether it be a coach, player or official. Skills and qualities are learnt that will aid children in their future development.

PE should focus on promoting life long participation and encourage pupils to lead a healthy lifestyle.

Pupils should understand the importance of how PE affects the body and the mind, other than skill development. A Sports Co-ordinator has many functions such as:
To co-ordinate school sport across the secondary and family of primary and special schools
Ensure that the family development plan complements and enhances school physical education programme's and school development plans.
To ensure that all young people are included in the family’s physical education and sport programme.

Involves Primary Schools and Secondary Schools working together
Encourages sport development at a young age
Organising events that promote sport in schools and linked with major events, e.g. Olympics. How will we fund them? PUT THEIR MONEY WHERE THEIR MOUTH IS!! If there are disabled pupils within a class, then they are able to participate.

Disabled sports are not just for those less abled, they are for everybody! SPORT FOR ALL.

Disability inclusion can be linked with the roles of an SSCo. They can organise school club links with coaches to introduce pupils to a new environment.

This incorporates nicely with the Disability Discrimination Act 2005 (Ratcliff, 2007) KEY PROCESSES:
2.1: developing skills in physical activity
2.2: making and applying decisions
2.3: developing physical and mental capacity
2.4: evaluating and improving
2.5: making informed choices about healthy, active lifestyle

1.1: competence
1.2: performance
1.4: healthy, active lifestyles

outwitting opponents
exploring and communicating ideas
performing at maximum levels
identifying and solving problems
exercising safely and effectively Female participation is fairly low within schools. There are many reasons to why girls don't enjoy PE; whether it be that they don't like mixed sex groups, the kit or that it a 'male dominated' subject.

Girls should be encouraged to participate in PE, especially now that female sport is increasing rapidly.

Girls in schools are exposed to very few role models so they have no one to look up to for inspiration. Female participation can be increased if teachers understand what the girls want to do.

Movement activities...
yoga / pilates / dance / aerobics / gym

These are all activities that are popular for females. They are not competitive and the girls will learn the importance of strength and conditioning.

Yoga, pilates and aerobics help pupils to develop an understanding of fitness and well-being (Grabara, 2011)

It enhances inclusion so works along side Curtner-Smith (1999) KEY PROCESSES:
2.1: developing skills in physical activity
2.2: developing physical and mental capacity
2.5: making informed choices about healthy, active lifestyles

1.1: competence
1.2: performance
1.3: creativity
1.4: healthy, active lifestyle

accurate replication of actions, phrases and sequences
exercising safely and effectively
exploring ideas
performing at maximum levels Range
Content my focus... Outwitting
Opponents Accurate replication
of actions, phrases
and sequences Exploring and
ideas, concepts
and emotions Performing at
Levels Identifying
solving problems Exercising safely
effectively Key
Processes 2.1: Developing skills in physical activity 2.3: Developing physical and mental capacity 2.5: Making informed choices about healthy, active lifestyles 2.4: Evaluating & Improving 2.2: Making and applying decisions Key
Concepts 1.1: Competence 1.3: Creativity 1.4: Healthy, active lifestyle 1.2: Performance INCLUSION
SPECTRUM Disability
Sport Activity Activities based on aspects of disability sport can be included in all approaches - reverse integration Open
Activity Modified
Activity Parallel
Activity Separate
Activity An individual or group do a purposefully planned different activity Participants are grouped according to ability - each do the same activity but as appropriate level Everyone does the same activity with modifications to challenge and support all abilities A simple activity based on what the entire group can do with little or no modifications ANY QUESTIONS? My curriculum would incorporate aspects of Sport Education, as it focuses a lot on inclusion through different roles.

From my teaching experience I know that not all children are the same and some are less skilled than others. There will always be a role for a child to play whether it be coach, manager, journalist or statistician etc.

My curriculum will be cross curricular as it can help develop pupils literacy skills, maths and scientific knowledge.

Linked with TPSR, the pupils will start to understand why our actions can affect our bodies. Children will have a greater knowledge and understanding of their mind and body within each role. Benefits of Sport Education Develops a range
of personal competences Provides enjoyable, engaging and motivating activities for young people Can increase levels of participation in Physical Activity by young people (especially through different roles) Develops sport cultured young people develops
educational benefits Covers the NCPE
key processes My curriculum focuses on young people being included in every lesson of physical education, whether they be lesser skilled, disabled or just for the pure fact that they don't like PE.

Each lesson will use the inclusion spectrum to reflect upon so that everybody is participating in the lesson in some way. Key Stage 3: How much PE will there be? Key Stage 4: Core PE: x3 1 hour lessons week Core PE: x 3 1 hour lessons a week
GCSE: x 1 hour Practical
x 1 hour Theory Students not taking GCSE PE... Mandatory Short Course GCSE
Syllabus consisting of: create a food diary
what you eat
how regularly you eat

Classes on nutrition and health - calorie intake, knowledge on certain foods and sugars/salts

create an exercise diary
how much exercise you do
when you do it
what you do
Do in pairs/threes Assessment:
x2 essays:

A reflection on your current status and how personal health can be improved

A reflection on your current status and how personal health has developed How to exercise correctly and safely:
Injury prevention
How to exercise properly

Guidance on how they can get involved in local sports clubs/leisure centers --> not competitive: recreational exercise
Exercise buddies - motivate each other. Homework - do exercise together (run, football, swimming, gym etc) ARGUMENTS 1. How will the teachers get the knowledge and understanding of inclusion?
Go on a day course so that they familiarize themselves with how to adapt lessons to suit everybody. E.g disability students etc. Use one of the Enrichment days to not only educate the students but the teachers also

2. Enrichment days:
If you have a day then it could affect lesson time…could include it within the core sessions. E.g KS3 have a double lesson and one single lesson a week --> that single lesson could be an enrichment lesson, have 1 every half term but take up the hour instead of the day.

3. What if the SSCo’s cant get the funding from government?
Push for a grant from the Youth Sport Trust or Sport England. A corporation that wants to encourage young people to play sport
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