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How the particle theory of matter can be used to explain the

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Domenico marzocco

on 15 December 2013

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Transcript of How the particle theory of matter can be used to explain the

How the particle theory of matter can be used to explain the properties of solids, liquids and gases.
Some substances can be between a liquid and a solid. How is this possible? Well there are some substances that are liquids but when you try to put your finger in it it will feel like you put your finger in a solid, so you can't put your finger all the way to the end of the glass. Oobleck is one of these strange substances.

Oobleck is a solid and liquid at the same time
You can make Oobleck into a ball but it will lose shape if you throw it in the air.
You can put Oobleck in a container, it will take the shape of the container like a gas or liquid, it keeps it's own volume like a solid and liquid.
How to make an Oobleck?
1 cup of cornstarch
1 bowl
1 glass of water
plastic container-like an old, empty yogurt tub
food coloring (optional)
newspaper to cover the table

Strange substances

When solids are heated they expand and the particles start to vibrate more quickly because they have extra kinetic energy. If a solid is heated to a certain temperature it will start to melt. The temperature at which a solid turns into a liquid is called its melting point. For example the melting point of water is zero degrees Celsius.
Heating states of matter
Changing States
Solids have particles that are very close together because of their strong attractive forces. The particles do not have very much kinetic energy and so the particles only vibrate slowly. The particles are arranged in a lattice pattern, which means that they are all tightly packed and the particles are all lined up in rows, the particles are all touching and the solid cannot be compressed. The volume of solids is measured in cubed units of length, eg: centimeters or meters.

Solids keep the same volume all the time, they don't take the shape of their container and they cannot be poured like water. In solids the bonds are very strong because the particles are attached to eachother.
States of Matter

Particle theory is the idea that everything is made up of tiny units called particles.

These particles move at different speeds depending on how much kinetic energy they have.

The way in which these particles are arranged has an effect on whether something is a solid, liquid or a gas.

These are called the three states of matter.

The particles in a liquid can't be compressed or keep their own shape, they take the shape of their container. For example, if you put water in a glass it will take the shape of the glass. In liquids the particles have more kinetic energy than in solids and so they vibrate faster. The particles are still close together and touching but the partcles are not packed together like in solids. Liquid particles have no bonds, that's why they are able to move around. Particles are connected in a random arrangement, rather than a regular lattice like a solid. Liquids can be poured.

Particle theory
These are different examples of solids that we use everyday
In gases the particles are not connected to each other, they are separated. They can move around freely. Gases don't have their own shape they fill the shape of any container. If I have a balloon and I squash it all the particles will come together and then it will eventually pop due to the pressure. There are no bonds between particles in gases and the particles have lots kinetic energy so they move around the container and change shape very rapidly.

Solids, liquids and gases can all transform from one into the other. This happens every day all over our globe with the water cycle. For example: when water evaporates from the sea and turns into clouds or when it condenses from cloud into rain, when a lake freezes and turns into ice, or when ice melts and turns back into water.

When matter changes states it is to do with the amount of energy that the particles have.
If you heat up a liquid it will evaporate, this process is called evaporation. When a liquid, for example water, is heated up all the particles that are inside it start vibrating and shaking. If a liquid is heated to a certain temperature it will boil and turn into a gas. The temperature at which a liquid will turn into a gas is called its boiling point, the boiling point of water is 100°Celsius. If a liquid is cooled down, the particles will stop sliding past each other and they arrange themselves into a solid, packed and organised. This is called freezing. Water's freezes at 0°Celsius and becomes solid ice. Iron freezes at 1

Gases have no bonds so the particles move freely. When a gas goes back into a liquid it's called condensation. When the gas cools down the kinetic energy lowers so all the particles slow down and it turns back into a liquid. Gases often condense when they meet a cool surface, for example: water vapour from a shower condenses on a cold bathroom mirror.

Particle theory explains the behaviour of solids liquids and gases and why they are all so different. Substances can transform from one state of matter to the another depending on the amount of energy they have. The forces that hold the particles of a solid or much stronger than the bonds in a liquid, and the bonds in a liquid are stronger than the bonds in a gas ( gases don't have bonds).
Plasma is another strange substance, it's considered at the fourth state of matter. If you heat up a gas the molecules and particles will have a negative charge, that means that it will then turn in something called plasma. The sun for example is made up of plasma ( a part). This negative charge can also help in many ways: for electricity or even eliminating cancer cells. Plasma does not have a definite shape or a definite volume. In the universe plasma is the most common state of matter, plasma's are also found in stars.

Plasma definition

To be clear plasma is a state of matter which is made up of negative and positive particles which make electricity. To make plasma you will have to heat up a gas in extremly hot temperatures. Lightning is a good example of a natural plasma. Gas is the closest state of matter to plasma.

Hope you didn't get to confused!

This is a picture of plasma
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