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Transcript of Chapter 20
Hong Kong (1891-92) Chapter 20 After the publication of El fili, Rizal left Europe for
Hong Kong (Nov 1891 - June 1892) Reasons For leaving Europe
Life was unbearable in Europe due to his political differences with M.H.del Pilar and other Filipinos in Spain.
To be near his beloved Philippines and family. - Notified Marcelo H. Del Pilar that he was retiring
from the political arena in Spain to Europe October 3, 1891, two weeks after the publication
of Fili Rizal left Ghent to Paris to say goodbye to the
Pardo de Taveras
and other friends and proceeded to Marseilles October 18, 1891 he boarded the steamer Melbourne bound for Hong Kong He brought with him a letter of recommendation by Juan Luna for Manuel Camus, a compatriot living in Singapore, and 600 copies of the Fili. Juan Luna
was an Ilocano Filipino painter, sculptor and a political activist of the Philippine Revolution during the late 19th century. He became one of the first recognized Philippine artists Manuel Camus
14 years younger than Rizal
one of those who discouraged Rizal from returning to the Philippines, for he knew that the friars were fuming about the Fili
a lawyer Observations 80 first class passenger
- sea was calm, placid like glass
- the sky was blue
- the air was fresh and invigorating
- it was truly a heavenly trip Experiences The trip was delighful, "Heavenly"
He amazed the passengers
Knowledge of many languages
skill in sketching
Befriended many missionaries
With one of them
Father Fuchs - a Tyrolese
- Enjoyed Playing chess with Rizal
- " Fine fellow, a Father Damasco without
pride and malice "
Gossiped by the German ladies
Admired and Respected by German ladies Rizal and the German ladies "The German woman is serious, studious, and diligent, and … they do not pay much attention to their clothes nor to jewels…they go everywhere, walking so nimbly or faster than men, carrying their books, their baskets, without minding anyone and only their own business… If our sister Maria had been educated in Germany, she would have been notable, because German women are active and somewhat masculine. They are not afraid of men. They are more concerned with the substance than with appearances… It is a pity that there in our country the principal adornment of all women almost always consists of clothes and finery, rather than of knowledge. In our province, women still preserve a virtue that compensates for their little instruction – the virtue of industry and tenderness. In no woman in Europe have I found a latter virtue in such a high degree as among the women there. If these qualities that nature gives to the women there were exalted by intellectual qualities, as it happens in Europe, the Filipino has nothing to envy the European." (Rizal’s letter to Trinidad, March 11, 1886) Arrived in Hong Kong
November 20, 1891 Welcomed by
Jose Ma. Basa (old friend of Rizal) Rizal established his residence at No. 5 D' Aguilar Street, No. 2 Rednaxela Terrace
he also opened his medical clinic December 1, 1891 Rizal wrote to his parents
He received a letter from his brother-in-law Manuel T. Hidalgo
- Deportation of 25 persons from Calamba
- Prepared a letter to the Queen Regent of Spain
"If the queen will not listen"
he will write to Queen Victoria of England in Hong Kong Rizal experiences
Christmas (1891) one of the happiest Yuletide celebration
had a pleasant life in Hong Hong
had a happy Family Reunion Events (Before Christmas of 1891)
The arrival of his:
- Francisco Mercado Rizal (Father}
- Paciano (Brother)
- Silvestre Ubaldo (Brother-in-law)
- Teodora Alonso Realonda (Mother)
- Lucia, Josefa, Trinidad (Sisters) January 31, 1892 a letter to Blumentritt
"Here we are all living together, my parents, sisters, and brother, in peace and far from the persecutions they suffered in the Philippines. They are very much pleased with the English government" Ophthalmic Surgeon in Hong Kong Experiences and Achievements
had many eye cases turned over by Dr. Lorenzo P. Marques
- Patients (British, Chinese, Portoguese, and Americans)
successful and well known medical practitioner (Britist Colony)
Successfully operated his mother's left eye
Received Moral and substantial aid in his medical practice
praised by Mr. Bousted, Nellie's father for practising his medical profession (March 21, 1892)
Received a congratulatory letter from Dr. Ariston Bautista Lin, from Paris and a book on Diagnostic Pathology by Dr. H. Virchow and another book entitled Traite Diagnostique by Mesnichock
Don Antonio Vergel de Dios from Paris also offered him his services for the purchase of medical books and instruments. Dr. Lorenzo P. Marques
his friend and admirer
helped Rizal to build up a wide clientele Nellie Bousted
Courted by Rizal after Leornor Rivera's marriage Borneo Colonization Project Rizal planned to move the landless Filipino families in North Borneo (Sabah)
board the ship Menon to Sandakan (March 7, 1892)
Bengkoka river of Maradu Bay
Mission was successful. The British Authorities of Borneo were willing to give Filipino colonists 100,000 acres of land, a beautiful harbor, and a good government for 999 years, free of all charges.
Rizal return to Hong Kong (April 20, 1892) Manuel T. Hidalgo - Objected the colonization project. He said "This idea about Borneo is no good. Why should we leave the Philipines, this beautiful country of ours? And besides what will people say? Why have we made all these sacrifices? Why should we go to a foreign land without exhausting all means for the welfare of the country which nurtured us from our cradles? Tell me that!" Gov. Valeriano Weyler Rizal Experiences and Activities Endorsed his Borneo Colonization Project
Graciano Lopez Jaena
Dr. Bautista Lin A new Governor General
Eulogio Despujol Rizal sent a letter to the New Governor (December 23, 1891)
Rizal wrote again a second letter (March 21, 1892)
- gave to a ship captain so that it would reach Governor Despujol's hand
once more there was no reply from the Governor. Instead, he notified the Spanish consul general in Hong Kong to tell Rizal that he could not approve the project. in Hong Kong •Ang mga Karapatan Nang Tao - The Rights of Man.
•A la Nacion Española – To the Spanish Nation.
•Sa mga Kababayan – To my Countrymen.
•Una Visita a la Victoria - A visit to Victoria Gaol
– Colonial prison of Hong Kong
- Contrast the cruel Spanish prison with the modern and more humane British prison system. The Hong Kong Telegraph – Rizals wrote article to the British daily newspaper
-Mr. Frazier smith = was a friend of Rizal
-Vigilant Spanish discovers Rizals idea so they banned this newspaper. •Colonization du British North Borneo, Par des Families de Iles Philippines – elucidate Borneo Colonization Project
•Proyecto de Colonizacion del British North Borneo por los Filipinos – elaborated on the same idea (article in Spanish)
•La Mano Roja – The Red Hand – denounces the frequent outbreaks of intentional fires in Manila.
•Constitution and By-Laws of the Liga Filipina – most important writing made by Rizal.
Philippine League – association of patriotic Filipinos for civic purposes.
---Conceived by Jose Ma. Basa
---Copies send to Domingo Franco friend in Manila Rizal Decided to return in Manila (May 1892) Jose Ma. Basa a bitter enemy of the friars, Basa was exiled to the Marianas in the wake of the Cavite Mutiny of 1872. He later setup base as a merchant in Hong Kong from where he smuggled into the Philip-pines materials produced by the propagandists in Spain. Copies of Rizals` Noli me tangere and issues of La Solidaridad were brought in through his efforts. Some freinds of Rizal in Europe Ferdinand Blumentritt Antonio Luna Juan Luna Rizal, del Pilar, and Mariano Ponce Dr. Ariston Bautista
A fellow Propagandist and friend of Philippine National Hero, Dr. Jose Rizal.
He risked arrest by distributing Rizal’s forbidden novels Filipino diplomats and leaders in Paris, 1898. SEATED, from left: F. de Almores, Felipe Agoncillo, Pedro Roxas, and Antonino Vergel de Dios. STANDING, from left: B. Villanueva, Antonio Roxas, E. Brias, and P.A. Roxas. Last Hong Kong Letters 2 sealed letters made by Rizal (June 20, 1892)
to be opened after his death
Dr. Marques (Safekeeper) The return of Rizal
Relatives and friends of Rizal opposed his decision
Trinidad tearfully warned him to desist
he spent his 31st birthday in Hong Kong (June 19, 1892) 1. "To my Parents, Brethren, and Friends"
2. "To the Filipinos" June 21, 1892
Rizal wrote a letter for Governor Despujol, his third letter to the discourteous Spanish chief Executive
Rizal, his sister lucia, widow of Herbosa, left Hong Kong
carried a special passport or "safe-conduct" issued by the Spansh consul-general in Hong Kong Rizal Falls into Spanish Trap •Spanish Consul- general send a cablegram to Gov. Despujol
•Secret case was filed in Manila “Anti-religious and anti- patriotic agitation”.
Luis de la Torre – secretary of Despujol
-To find out if Rizal was naturalized as a German citizen
-Rizal and his sister peacefully crossing the China Sea.
-Unaware of the Spanish duplicity. Graciano Lopez Jaena Reasons why Rizal made up his mind to return in Manila:
To confer with Governor Despujol regarding his Borneo colonization project
To establish the Liga Filipina in Manila
To prove that Eduardo de Lete was wrong in attacking him in Madrid that Rizal, being comfortable and safe in Hong Kong had abandoned the country’s cause. Learnings & Contributions towards his mission in liberating the Filipinos from Spanish tyranny in this chapter His travel from Europe to Hong Kong was one of his steps towards his mission as he befriended and amazed by many passengers that was a secure and safety travel, a good omen that he is in a right track.
He learned to gain respect and admiration, despite of his brown skin, for he was a cultured gentleman, epecially the german ladies were so much embarassed at first, was a help to Rizal in the success of his mission in a way that racial differences is not a basis of person's nobility.
His arrival in Hong Kong was welcomed by some Filipinos and at the same date, was greeted by a sad news from a letter of his brother-in-law, Manuel T. Hidalgo, urged and motivates Rizal to pursue and continue his started mission.
His pleasant life in Hong Kong with his family, celebrating the yuletide season in peace and far from persecutions was a help towards his mission. This experience rejuvenate and reenergize Rizal that is essential in his Journey. Rizal deserved to have a break.
His medical practice inHong Kong was purposely to cure his mother's growing eye blindness. The activities and surgeons of Rizal was a help to his mission in an indirect way. Indirect in a sense that being an Ophthalmologist is a good additional to his captivating resume or profile. Having a great profile means having a great influence, with the influence he have, he is capable of making people to believe and listen to him.
Rizal learned that
His writings in Hong Kong brought a great influence to the readers about the incorrect practices and injustices.