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BUILDING FOUNDATIONS

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daniel pascual

on 6 July 2014

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Transcript of BUILDING FOUNDATIONS

SHEET PILES
Sheet pile wall is an earth retention and excavation support that holds and retains the soil, using sheet sections with interlocking edges
It is constructed by driving prefabricated sections into the ground in sequence to design depth along the planned excavation perimeter or seawall alignment.
used to support excavations for below grade parking structures, basements, pump houses, and foundations, construct cofferdams, and to construct seawalls and bulkheads
KRINNER GROUND SCREW
The krinner ground screw is used as a modern foundation for many applications, including traffic signs, carports, advertising boards, fencing, solar farms, and timber construction.
Modern foundation construction system
The ground screw foundation is used to secure almost anything into the ground it can even be used under water
EFFICIENT-NO CONCRETE-DURABLE

RETAINING WALL
• A wall that is used to resist the lateral pressure of the soil behind it.
• Retains soil to unnatural slopes.
• Bounds soils between two different elevations.

PILE FOUNDATION
• Pile foundation is categorized to deep foundation system
• They are formed by long, slender, columnar elements typically made from steel or reinforced concrete and sometimes timber.
• To be considered as a pile foundation, depth must be more than three times of the breadth.

MAT FOUNDATION
• Normally, the mat foundation is used for situations where the individual columns or footings would be undesirably close together or will overlap and covering more than 50% of the building area
• To function properly, the mat structure will be more rigid and thicker than individual spread footing.
• A mat foundation is also typically used when there are poor and weak soil conditions or a space is needed under the structure for underground facilities.

BUILDING FOUNDATIONS
DRIVEN PILE
Useful in offshore applications
Stable in soft squeezing soils and can densify loose soils
Prefabricated off site and then driven into the ground by a large hammering machine

TYPES
TYPES OF MAT FOUNDATION

• Flat plate mat
• Plate thickened under columns
• Two-way beam and slab
• Plate with pedestal
• Rigid frame mat
• Piled raft

TYPES OF RETAINING WALLS
Gravity Retaining Wall
Cantilevered Retaining Wall
Sheet Piling
Anchored Retaining Wall
SHALLOW FOUNDATION SYSTEM
DEEP FOUNDATION SYSTEM
It is a type of foundation system that transfer the building loads to the earth, near the surface
It is a type of foundation system recommended on structures with loads that exceed to the safe bearing capacity of the underlying soil.
BORED PILES
DRIVEN PILES
CONCRETE FOUNDATION
MAT FOUNDATION SYSTEM
SHEET PILES
RETAINING WALL
SHEAR WALL
DIAPHRAGM WALLS
BORED PILE
Often use in urban areas as there is minimal vibration
Used to support high building producing heavy vertical loads
It can be drilled into 50 meters depth of soil
It is cast by drilling tools, buckets, casing, auger bits etc. It is used to remove the soil and rock

ADVANTAGE
INSTALLATION
LET'S WATH A VIDEO by Nasly Mohamed Ali
can be precast
piles size, length and shape can be made in advance, as a result, the progress will be fast
can compact the adjacent soil mass to increase its bearing capacity
it is the most favored method for works over water like wharfs and jetties
neat and clean, less storage space requirement
DISADVANTAGE
need to withstand handling stresses during transportation and driving
requires heavy equipment for handling and driving
the method involves cutting extra lengths. This increase the cost of the project
foundations of the adjacent structures are likely to be affected due to vibrations generated by the driving of piles
ADVANTAGE
Piles can be extended
Large excavations and backfill are eliminated
Absence of vibration will not disturb adjacent piles or structures
Adjacent soil is not disturb or remolded
Can vary its diameter and may eliminate the construction of caps over multiple pile groups

DISADVANTAGE
Water under pressure may pipe up shaft washing out cement
Susceptible to “necking” in squeezing ground
It needs sufficient storage space for all the materials used in the construction
The advantage of increased bearing capacity due to compaction in granular soil that could be obtained by a driven pile is not produced by a cast-in-situ pile

INSTALLATION
LET'S WATH A VIDEO
STEEL BASE PLATE
• It is basically a connection of the column base plates and the concrete ground structure
• It transfer the load of the structure to the concrete foundation

INSTALLATION
LET'S WATTCH A VIDEO
ADVANTAGE
DISADVANTAGE
Z-TYPE
Wooden sheet pile
Concrete sheet pile
Aluminum sheet pile
Vinyl sheet pile
Steel sheet pile

Provides high resistance to driving stresses
Light weight
Can be reused on several projects
Long service life above or below water with modest protection
Easy to adapt the pile length by either welding or bolting
Joints are less suitable to deform during driving


Sections can rarely be used as part of the permanent structure.
Installation of sheet piles is difficult in soils with boulders or cobbles. In such cases, the desired wall depths may not be reached.
Excavation shapes are dictated by the sheet pile section and interlocking elements.
Sheet pile driving may cause neighborhood disturbance
Settlements in adjacent properties may take place due to installation vibrations

Sheet pile walls are constructed by

1. Laying out a sequence of sheet pile sections, and ensuring that sheet piles will interlock
2. Driving (or vibrating) the individual sheet piles to the desired depth
3. Driving the second sheet pile with the interlocks between the first sheet pile and second "locked"
4. Repeating steps 2 & 3 until the wall perimeter is completed
5. Use connector elements when more complex shapes are used

Z TYPE SHEET PILE
WOOD SHEET PILE
CONCRETE SHEET PILE
VINYL SHEET PILE
STEEL PLATE
A flat plate mat is used for fairly small and uniform column spacing and relatively light loads. A flat plate type of mat is suitable when the soil is not too compressible.
FLAT PLATE
For columns subjected to very heavy loads usually the flat plate is thickened under columns to guard against diagonal shear and negative moments
FLAT PLATE THICKENED UNDER COLUMNS
TWO-WAY BEAM AND SLAB
When the column spacing is large and carries unequal loads it would be more economical if a two-way beam and slab raft. This type of mat is particularly suitable when underlying soil is too compressible
FLAT PLATE WITH PEDESTALS
The function of this mat is same as that of flat plate thickened under columns. In this mat pedestals are provided at the base of the columns.
RIGID FRAME
This type of mat is used when columns carry extremely heavy loads. In such design, basement walls act as ribs or deep beam. When the depth of beam exceeds 90 cm in simple beam and slab mat, a rigid frame mat is referred.
PILED RAFT
In this type of construction the mat is supported on piles. This type of mat is used where the soil is highly compressible and the water table is high. This type reduces settlement and control buoyancy.
SHORING
• timber or metal support
• Is the process of supporting a building, vessel, structure, or trench with shores (props) when in danger of collapse or during repairs or alterations
• Form of prop or support, usually temporary that is used during the repair or original construction of buildings and in excavations.

RAKING
SHORE
FLYING SHORE
TRENCH SHORE
STEEL TRENCH SHORE
DIAPHRAGM WALL
• is generally reinforced concrete wall constructed in the ground
• can be used in most ground conditions to construct underground stations in city centers, multi-level underground car parks, road junctions and underpasses, and open cut and cut & cover rail tunnels
• Refers to the in-situ construction of vertical walls by means of deep trench excavations
Applications:

• Commonly used in congested areas.
• Can be installed in close proximity to existing structure.
• Practically suited for deep basements

EXCAVATION OF PANEL
INSTALLING OF REBAR CAGE AND CONCRETING
REPETITION OF PROCESS
DIAPHRAGM WALL GRAB
SHEAR WALL
• Gravity –Gravity walls uses its own mass to resist pressure from behind. It has setback that improves stability by leaning back to the retained soil behind it.
• Cantilevered – Cantilevered walls usually uses less material than compared to a gravity wall. In the shape of an inverted T these walls are made with an internal stem of steel reinforcement that holds horizontal pressure from behind the wall and vertical pressure from the ground below.
• Sheet Piling- This type of wall is usually used in soft soils and tight spaces. It can be made out of steel, vinyl or wood planks that is driven into the ground.
• Anchored-Useful when high loads are expected. Uses additional strength from the cables that is anchored in the soil or rock behind it. It is usually driven into the material with boring.
It is used to counter the effects of lateral load upon the structure.
The most common loads that shear walls are used to carry are wind and seismic loads.
Shears walls are usually found in the center of a large structure or at the elevator shaft.
It is used to reinforcing a frame by attaching a rigid wall.
Maintains the shape of the building
Prevents rotation of joints.
Most subjected in high rise buildings.

TYPES OF SHEAR WALL
RC SHEAR WALL
PLYWOOD SHEAR WALL
MIDPLY SHEAR WALL
STEEL PLATE SHEAR WALL
ADVANTAGES
Helps buildings to resist earthquakes
Easy to construct, because reinforcement detailing of walls is relatively straight forward and therefore easily implemented at site.
Provides larger stiffness to the buildings there by reducing the damage to structure and its contents.
Effective in minimizing earthquake damage in structural and nonstructural elements like glass windows and building contents.


RC SHEAR WALL

PLYWOOD SHEAR WALL
MIDPLY SHEAR WALL
STEEL PLATE SHEAR WALL


• High compressive loads, extraction load and lateral pressure loads, with verification in structural calculations
• No digging and no concrete
• Environmentally friendly due to minimum surface sealing
• No damage to the surrounding area
• No negative impact on the landscape
• No waiting times: can be subjected to loads immediately!
• High installation capacities with special-purpose machinery for Foundation Construction
• Special foundations for extra-deep Foundation requirements
• Fast and inexpensive to dismantle and relocate, with the site being left in its original state
• No costs for disposing of Foundations which have become unusable
• Long lifetime
• Used even in asphalt surfaces

ADVANTAGE
1. TUBULAR POST:
• Allow adjustment during inserting into the ground screws.
• This will always ensure a correctly vertical position.
• Larger pole diameters and loads will be installed by
• means of fl ange plates on the foundations.

2. CONE BODY:
• Serves for guiding the tubular post to be inserted.
• This will be centred either by means of broken granite split
• or the patented eccentric system for fi ne adjustment.

3. FIXING:
• Sharp edged broken granite split ensures optimum
• support and stability.


4. SOIL:
• Is pressed and compacted by screw in the ground
• screws, which makes for utmost stability. No soil
• has to be excavated and removed.

5. THE GROUND SCREWS:
• Made of battered steel, galvanized and fully welded
• screw-in spiral.


SOLUTIONS AND APPLICATIONS:
• Timber terraces
• Carports
• Roofs
• Noise barriers
• Framehouses
• Footbridges and bridges
• Sports and play equipment
• Fences
• Pergolas/pavilions
• Wooden wallboard sheds

TIMBER FRAME CONSTRUCTION
ADVERTISING AND TRANSPORT TECHNOLOGY
SOLUTIONS AND APPLICATIONS:
• Advertising pylons
• Large-sized advertising
• Flagpoles
• Perimeter advertising
• Construction signs
• Traffic control systems
• Traffic lights
• Sign gantries
• Motorway signage
• Noise barriers
• Warning signs etc.
• Traffic signs (as set forth
in traffic regulations)
• Reflector posts

URBAN AND GRADEN
AND
LANDSCAPE CONSTRUCTION
SOLUTIONS AND APPLICATIONS:
• Bus shelters/benches
• Barriers
• Parking meters
• Street lamps
• Guardrails
• Barrier systems
• Solar lamps
• Noise barriers and screen walls
• Awnings/shading systems
• Protective and event equipment
• Playground equipment
• CCTV and surveillance systems
• Greenhouses
• Industrial and security fences
• Wire-netting fences
• Ball-catching systems

FENCES
Industrial fences
Construction fences
Wire-netting fences
Ball-catching fences
Garden fences
Safety fences
Security fences

Traditional concrete foundations require digging, rebar, forms and concrete. Concrete foundations also require wait times before loads can be applied and uncertainty as to tensile strength, as much depends upon the concrete mix supplied.
With Krinner Ground Screws, there is no digging, load bearing can be immediate and there is certainty as to the very high quality of the Krinner Screws. The screws are also removable for more portable projects.

Why use Krinner Ground Screws rather than concrete foundations?
There is no digging, refilling, or transportation or use of concrete. The screws work, like wood screws, by using the earth’s compaction to embed into the ground. There is minimal ground disturbance. This makes them the choice for hard to access areas, and environmentally sensitive land.
Perhaps one of the most unique features of the screws is that they are removable and reusable, again with very little impact in both installation and removing of the screw.

What are the environmental benefits?
THANK YOU FOR LISTENING

AMBROCIO, YZA ANGELA
MARTIRES, PAOLO GABRIEL
ORINOCO, JON TOBI
PASCUAL, DANIEL
VILLANUEVA, CHRIS ANGELO
KRINNER GROUND SCREW
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