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The States at War

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Amy Cox

on 19 April 2015

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Transcript of The States at War

at WAR

The Civil War
Marching into Battle
The War Ends
1865 - 1877
Gearing Up for War
The War for Constitutional Liberty
The Second American Revolution
Mr. Lincoln's War
The War for States' Rights
The Southern Rebellion
The Second War for Independence
The War of Northern Aggression
The Second War for Independence
The War to Supress Yankee Arrogance
The Brothers' War
The Great Rebellion
The War for Southern Nationality
The Yankee Invasion
The War for Southern Freedom
The Confederate War
The War for Southern Freedom
The War Between the States
The War of North of the North and South
Raising Northern Forces
July 4, 1861: Lincoln calls for 500,000 troops
States drafted soldiers, not the federal govt
Conscription law passed in 1863 to raise a national army (draft)
Draftees could hire substitutes or pay a $300 exemption
All men 20 - 45 were required to serve
Riots over the draft (mostly Irish immigrants)
Raising Southern Forces
Some of West Point's finest
Initial response was huge
Had to issue a draft by 1862; all men 18 - 35; eventually up to 65
Twenty Negro Law
: exempted any planter with more that 20 slaves
"A rich man's war, but a poor man's fight"
Total War
Total war involves soldiers and civilians
Northern factories produced war materials
Food production increases in the North/increased mechanization (40% of England's flour came from the North)
Private groups (commissions) helped supply medicines, Bibles
Agriculture in South negatively affected by the war; farmland destroyed, transportation systems in bad repair; planters off fighting
Women had to take over plantations; provide resources for war; take care of wounded
Modern Warfare
Aerial reconnaissance (manned balloons)
Mines and trenches
Photography (Mathew Brady)
The Anaconda Plan
Developed by Union General Winfield Scott
North's goal: to preserve the Union
1. Blockade the South/shut off trade
2. Divide the South at the Mississippi
3. Occupy Richmond
4. Prevent the capture of WA, D.C.
The Southern Strategy
Developed by Confederate Gen. Joe Johnston
South's goal:
1. Stop Northern aggression
2. Establish a sovereign nation
South fights a defensive war
Advantages on Each Side
Population (22 million)
Railroads (70%)
Strong Navy
Capital (money)
Political Leadership
Foreign Recognition
Food crops
Defensive War
Common Cause
Military Leaders
Structure of the Armies
Fort Sumter
April 12 - 14, 1861
Abraham Lincoln inaugurated on
March 4, 1861
There were 33 states in the Union when Lincoln was elected in 1860
7 states seceded between December of 1860 and March of 1861
The Confederate States of America was established February 1, 1861
4 more states left the Union after the war began at Ft. Sumter in April of 1861
Ft. Sumter sits on a man-made island
Was constructed between 1829 - 1845
Part of James Madison's Third Coastal Defense System
Major Robert Anderson and Federal troops occupied the fort in April of 1861
President James Buchanan sent the Star of the West to re-supply the fort, but called it back when fired upon
Lincoln sent "food for hungry men" by ship in April of 1861; shots were fired, and the Civil War had begun
First Battle of Bull Run
July 21, 1861 Manassas Junction, Virginia
Train junction
Journalists and politicians in attendance
Union troops: Gen. Irvin McDowell
Rebel troops: Gen. Joseph E. Johnston and P.G.T Beauregard
Gen. Thomas Jackson's men refuse to retreat; Jackson earns nickname "Stonewall"
Rebels drive the Union army back
Union troops retreat all the way to Washington
Rebels unable to capitalize on victory; 850k/4,000 w/m

Effects of First Bull Run
850 killed/4,000 wounded or missing
North realized their army needed training
Lincoln appoints General George McClellan to train the army
South becomes over-confident
South fails to follow up their victory
Wilmer McLean: "The war began in my front yard and ended in my parlor."
“The war began in my front yard and ended in my parlor.” This statement about the start and the end of the U.S. Civil War was spoken by Wilmer McLean and is surprisingly almost perfectly true.

A little background- Wilmer McLean was born on May 3, 1814 in Alexandria, Virginia, one of fourteen children. When his parents passed away at an early age, McLean was raised by various family members. At 39, McLean married a widow by the name of Virginia Mason, who had two daughters from a previous marriage. Mason also inherited her family’s 1,200 acre Yorkshire plantation located in Bull Run, Virginia.

Life was peaceful at the Yorkshire plantation with McLean working as a fairly successful wholesale grocer. As tensions mounted between the North and South, McLean, a retired military man (former member of the Virginia militia with the rank of Major) and current slave owner, offered to let his plantation be used by the Confederate army and it was soon put into service as the headquarters for General P.G.T. Beauregard of the Confederacy.

McLean welcomed General P.G.T. Beauregard to stay at his house on July 17, 1861. The next night, July 18, 1861, General Beauregard was sitting at McLean’s dining room table when a cannonball exploded through the fireplace and into the kitchen. General Beauregard wrote about the event in his diary, “A comical effect of this artillery fight (which added a few casualties to both lists) was the destruction of the dinner of myself and staff by a Federal shell that fell into the fireplace of my headquarters at the McLean House.”

What followed was the First Battle of Bull Run (also known as “The Battle of First Manassas”). Although the Civil War technically started at Fort Sumter on April 12, 1861, besides being the first major land battle of the war, the First Battle of Bull Run is generally marked as the point when the war began in earnest.

During the Battle of Bull Run, the Union soldiers were initially able to push back the Confederate troops, despite the impressive efforts of Confederate Colonel Thomas Jackson- Jackson earned his nickname “Stonewall”, for holding the high ground at Henry House Hill (shown in the background of the picture above). In the afternoon, Confederate reinforcements arrived and were able to break through the Union lines. The Union troops were forced to retreat all the way back to Washington D.C. Their retreat was a slow one, as it was delayed by onlookers from Washington who wanted to watch the battle unfold.

After the First Battle of Bull Run, the McLean household was used as a Confederate hospital and a place to hold captured Union soldiers. The Confederate army paid rent to the McLean family during their stay, a total of $825 (about $21,000 today) over the course of the war. McLean also made a small fortune running sugar and other supplies through the Union blockade to the Confederacy.

McLean started to fear for the safety of his growing family when the Second Battle of Bull Run started in 1862. His house and land were in disarray from the war, so he decided to make a fresh start in southern Virginia. After scouring the area, McLean found a nice two story cottage in Appomattox, Virginia about 120 miles south of his home in Bull Run. Here he hoped to stay away from the war and all of the problems it had caused for his family.

The McLean family enjoyed a few years of peace and quiet in this way, but in 1865 McLean found the Civil War at his front steps once again with the Battle of Appomattox Court House started on the morning of April 9, 1865.

Prior to this battle, General Robert E. Lee was forced to abandon the Confederate state capital of Richmond, Virginia after the Siege of Petersburg. Heading west, Lee hoped he would be able to connect with Confederate troops in North Carolina. The Union troops pursued Lee and his forces until they were able to cut off the Confederate retreat. Lee then made his final stand at Appomattox Court House and was forced to surrender as his troops were overwhelmingly outnumbered, four to one.

A messenger sent to McLean informed him of the Confederates intentions to surrender and asked him to find a location where the surrender could take place. On the afternoon of April 9, Palm Sunday, General Robert E. Lee met with Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant in McLean’s parlor to officially surrender. The terms of the surrender were generous to Lee and his army: none of his soldiers were to be held for treason or imprisoned; his men could take their horses home for spring planting; and the starving Confederate troops received food rations.

While this time around McLean’s house didn’t get partially blown up, after the Confederates surrendered, Union soldiers started taking tables, chairs, and any other household items from McLean as souvenirs to remember this historic event. A few soldiers gave McLean money as he protested the theft of his household items. For instance, the table that General Lee signed the surrender document on was purchased by General Edward Ord for $40 (about$1000 today).

In the days that followed the surrender, the McLean house was used as the headquarters for Major General John Gibbon of the United States Army. It was also at this time that local civilians started visiting the house… and taking any part of the home that they could get their hands on. McLean did manage to continue to make some money off of this for a time, selling many items supposedly in the house during the signing; he reportedly sold enough items in this way “to furnish an entire apartment complex”.

Rebecca McTear
2nd Bull Run
McClellan trains Union army well, but hesitates to use them (nicknamed "Little Napoleon"); popular with troops
Lincoln grows frustrated with McClellan's unwillingness to fight
Lincoln orders McClellan back to DC and puts army under command of Gen. John Pope
Lee divides his army, distracts Pope and sends Stuart to raid Pope's headquarters; dispatch book taken
Two armies clash again on August 29, 1862
Jackson's "foot calvary" helps Lee
Results of Second Bull Run
Confederate victory
Union retreats back to Washington, DC
Lee successfully defeated the main and reserve Union army
Lee successfully moved the locale of fighting from Richmond to DC
Lincoln puts McClellan back in charge
Union: 62,000 troops; 10,000 k/w
Rebels: 50,000; 1,300 k; 7,000 w
Controlling the Waters
Goals on waterways: blockade and capture Mississippi
Lincoln orders a naval blockade on April 19, 1861 - South Carolina to the Mexican border -prevented exit or entrance of commerce -Eventually extended to the Potomac River
Shortage of ships makes blockade difficult
Secretary of Navy orders ship building
Blockade concentrated on 10 major so. ports
South used
blockade runners
; make more than 8,500 successful trips; most ships headed for the Bahamas or Bermuda
Hired British ships/captains
$15 million sits in Nassau harbor
Gideon Welles
Secretary of the Navy
Jefferson Davis
President of the Confederacy
Blockade only 50% effective
South drives up price of cotton with self-imposed restriction
South tries to pressue Britain to support Confederacy
Weakens South's credit; foreign trade declines by 2/3
War in the "west" focused on controlling the Mississippi
Goal was to separate TX, AR, and LA from rest of South
Sherman calls Mississippi the "spinal column of America"
Gen. Grant's leadership key factor in controlling MS River
Gen. William T. Sherman
Gen. Ulysses S. Grant
Many Southern blockade runners were headed for the Bahamas or Bermuda
Grant believed to control the west, the Union must control the Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers
Grant's army captured Fort Henry (TN) and Fort Donelson (C)
Grant goes on to capture Corinth, MS
Wins Shiloh, TN battle in April 1862
Shiloh battle gives Union total control of the Upper Mississippi
Grant's nickname becomes "U.S. Grant"/"Unconditional Surrender"
Gen. Grant
Gaining the Lower Mississippi
Ft. St. Philip and Ft. Jackson guard mouth of the river at New Orleans; chain link used to block entry
Admiral David Farrgut sneaks ships into the bay, dismantles Confederate fleet. New Orleans falls. April 24, 1862
Vicksburg, MS sits on high bluffs
Union makes 6 attempts to control the town
Grant cuts his men from their supply line
Union beseiges the town for six weeks
South surrenders Vicksburg on July 4, 1863.
Lee takes the offensive at
Creek (Sharpsburg, MD) in September 17, 1862
Lee had two goals:
cause a Northern uprising and convince Britain to join the Confederacy
Many Marylanders were Southern sympathizers
McClellan learns that Lee's army is divided; dropped cigars
Jackson's foot calvary helps hold the Rebel line
McClellan fails to follow up with a second attack and Lee's army escapes back down into Virginia
The "tie" at Antietam gave Lincoln the opportunity he needed to issue the Emancipation Proclamation
Lincoln replaces McClellan
Continuing the War in the East
The bloodiest day in American history
22,700 casualties
Lincoln replaced McClellan with Ambrose Burnside
Next major Union offensive in December 11 -15,1862
Burnside's plan relied on quickness and deception
Feign movement into Culpeper, then shift to Fredericksburg
Army reached the Rappahannock on Nov. 17
Pontoon bridges did not arrive on time; army ordered to wait
Lee had planned a defense at the North Anna River, but moved to Fredericksburg when Union army stalled
Lee had time to amass a large defense and dig in
Army crosses on 11th and 12th
Charge up Marye's Heights happens on December 13
7 divisions (14 separate charges) fail up Marye's Heights
Lee grants a truce on the 14th and Burnside retreats on the 15th
114,000 Union vs 72,500 Confederate
12,700 cas vs 5,400 cas
Union morale dipped to its lowest point after Fredericksburg.
Lincoln replaces Burnside with "Fighting Joe" Hooker
Hooker has 130,000 soldiers to Lee's 60,000
Decided to attack Lee by going west to Chancellorsville
April 30 - May 6, 1863
Lee splits his army in half and sends Jackson on a surprise attack
Considered Lee's greatest victory
Jackson wounded in the left arm
Lee: "He has lost his left arm, but I have lost my right"
Jackson dies of pneumonia on May 10, 1863
Lee needed to get the Union army away from Richmond and get much needed supplies
Wanted to fight at Harrisburg
Hooker had allowed Lee to escape to Pennsylvania and had been replaced by Meade
Lee's missing calvary officer left Lee fighting "blind"
The armies clash July 1-3, 1863
Rebels win the first day and chase remnants of the 1st and 11th Corps onto Cemetery Hill.
Ewell decides not to chase them off with his 3rd Corps
Lee fails at Little Round Top on July 2nd
Lee decides to attack Meade's middle on July 3rd. Pickett's Charge fails
Lee loses 1/3 of his army and any hope of getting help from Britain
Meade fails to follow up and destroy Lee's army
Turning point of the war
The Gettysburg Address
November 19, 1863
Emancipation Proclamation
Announced in September of 1862 after Antietam
Only affected seceding states
Took effect January, 1863
Did not free slaves in border states
Gave the Union a measurable goal: making men free
Some slaves did flee to the North
Ended all hope of Britain helping the South
Blacks still faced prejudice
Death toll 37% higher
54th Massachusetts
Fort Wagner July 18, 1863
54th Massachusetts
Sgt. William H. Carney
Congressional Medal of Honor
Destruction of the South
Grant takes control of Eastern Theater
Sherman takes command in the West
War of attrition (total war)
Lee sends Early to the Shenandoah Valley to cause anxiety in the North
Sheridan sent by Grant to destroy the area and leave nothing for Lee's army
Grant headed to Chattanooga, TN
Armies clash at Chickamauga Creek, TN; Union retreats back to Chattanooga
Gen. George Thomas the "Rock of Chickamauga"
Lee fails to take Knoxville; Union takes control of Tennessee (December 1863)
Grant clashes with Lee's scant army at "the Wilderness" VA (May 1864)
118,00 men to Lee's 60,000
Heavy losses on both sides
Grant called "Lincoln's Butcher" in Northern newspapers
After Spotsylvania Courthouse and Cold Harbor battles, Grant has lost 50,000 men in one month
Grant lays siege to Lee's army at Petersburg
Siege ends in April (6/64 -4/2, 1865)
With his army surrounded, his men weak and exhausted, Robert E. Lee realized there was little choice but to consider the surrender of his Army to General Grant. After a series of notes between the two leaders, they agreed to meet on April 9, 1865, at the house of Wilmer McLean in the village of Appomattox Courthouse. The meeting lasted approximately two and one-half hours and at its conclusion the bloodliest conflict in the nation's history neared its end.
Richmond falls on April 3, 1865
Lincoln's orders are to "let them up easy."
Lincoln arrives in Richmond, by boat, on April 4
April 14, 1865
Lincoln Kennedy
Elected to Congress 1846 Elected to Congress 1946
Elected President 1860 Elected President 1960
Both lost a child while living in the White House
Both presidencies focused on Civil Rights
Secretary named Kennedy Secretary named Lincoln
Both shot in the head in the presence of their wives
Shot in Ford Theater Shot in a Lincoln, made by Ford
Both shot on a Friday
John Wilkes Booth Lee Harvey Oswald
Booth shot Lincoln in a Oswald shot Kennedy from a
theater and fled to a warehouse and fled to a theater
Both assassins killed before trial/conspiracy
Lincoln's successor was Kennedy's successor was
Andrew Johnson, Lyndon Johnson,
born in 1808 born in 1908

March 4, 1865
"With malice toward none, with charity for all, with firmness in the right, as God gives us to see the right, let us strive to finish the work we are in, to bind up the nation's wounds."
Lincoln's death on April 15, 1865 a blow to the nation
Will greatly affect the post-war period
Walt Whitman
Elegy - a poem of serious reflection, typically a lament for the dead

Metaphor - a figure of speech in which word or a phrase is applied
to an object or action to which it is not literally
applicable; a thing regarded as representative or
symbolic of something else, especially something

Extended Metaphor - When an author uses a metaphor throughout a
long passage, or even an entire poem. The
author would use it to create an even clearer
comparison between the two items.
1865 - 1877
Period designated for rebuilding the nation
Lincoln wanted the nation to heal quickly
Economic, political, and social concerns
Lincoln's death made the period much more difficult for the North and the South
Period will begin with the end of the war, and end with the election of Republican Rutherford B. Hayes
The North
Suffered little property damage
Industrialization had progressed
Immigration added to the population
Thousands had died, but returning soldiers were able to return to work in the North
The South
Lost three generations of men and boys
Lost its labor source (slavery)
No wave of immigration coming into the South
Severe property damage
- South's fields stripped bare
- Livestock taken or destroyed
- Infrastructure destroyed (RRs, homes, businesses)
- Money was worthless/South bankrupt
- Citizens demoralized and bitter
- Blamed the North for devastation
"(Man) may consider himself exempt, thinking, "I will have peace, even though I follow my own stubborn heart." This will lead to the destruction of the well-watered land, as well as the dry land." Deuteronomy 29:19
Problems Facing the Nation
Rebuilding the infrastructure of the South
Integrating freed slaves (
) into society
Reestablishing state governments/writing new state constitutions
Constitutional crisis:
whose job was it Reconstruct ?
December 6, 1865
July 9, 1868
February 3, 1870
13th - outlawed slavery
14th - gave all natural born/naturalized persons citizenship
15th - right to vote cannot be based on "race, color, or
previous condition of servitude." Women could not
Three Phases of Reconstruction
1. Presidential 1863 - 1866

2. Radical 1867 - 1871

3. Bourbon (Redeemer) 1872 - 1877
Presidential Reconstruction
1863 - 1866
Lincoln developed a plan for bringing the southern states back into the Union before the war ended
Lincoln believed the South had committed an act of rebellion
He believed his duty was to end the insurrection
Knew he had the power to pardon the South
Ten Percent Plan
Pardon former Confederates who swear allegiance to the Constitution and the Union
When 10% of a state had taken the oath, the state was to be readmitted
New state constitution had to be written and new officials elected
State seats would be readmitted to Congress
Tennessee, Louisiana, and Arkansas met the terms by spring of 1864
Radical Republicans
resist the plan
Believed the South was being treated too kindly
Wanted South to be treated as a conquered foreign nation
Wanted to continue punishing the South
Congress refuses to admit the 3 states back into the Union
Some of Lincoln's actions were approved in 1864
Congress wanted power back from the executive branch
Wade - Davis Bill
Passed by the Radical Congress on July 7,1864
State could only re-enter when 50% of voters registered in 1860 had taken an oath of allegiance
Those who wanted to vote or hold political office had to swear they had not voluntarily supported the Confederacy
The state had to abolish slavery (abide by 13th Amendment)
Had to rescind their act of secession
Had to abandon claims that the federal government should repay them for war debts
Bill passed both houses
Lincoln used the "pocket veto" to kill the bill
Sworn in as president on April 15, 1865
Elected to the U.S. Senate from Tennessee in 1857
Opposed TN's vote to secede in 1861
Johnson had publicly chastised the South for "treason"
Radical Republicans assumed he would do their bidding
Shared Lincoln's belief that it was impossible to secede
Proceeded to put Lincoln's plan into effect while Congress was out of session
(group pardon); excluded large plantation owners
Unpardoned southernors could not vote, hold office, reclaim property
provisional governors
to hold state conventions, where new constitutions would be drafted: repudiated Confederate debts, and ratified the 13th Amendment
Final step was 10% of voters swearing loyalty for Congress to readmit
Republican Reaction
Republicans angry
Most Southern states elected former Confederates
Many Republicans believed southern lands should be taken and given to freedmen (neither plan included this)
Most of the South's congressmen were Democrats. Seating them might make Republicans the minority in Congress
Southern states, instead of treating freedmen as full citizens, were institution
black code laws
in the South
Black Code Laws
: did allow a few basic rights (right to sue; be sued; testify in court; marry within their race; buy, own and transfer property), but were very restrictive, and placed African Americans in an inferior position to whites
Black Code Laws
Passed by southern states in 1865-66, these laws had the intent, and the effect of restricting African Americans' freedom, and of forcing them to work in a labor economy based on low wages or debt
In some states African Americans could only work as servants or farmers
Some forbade them living in towns or cities
Had to pay for costly licenses to apply for appreticeships
Arrested for vagrancy
Vagrant African Americans could be hired out to anyone who would pay their fines
Forbade them from carrying arms and owning property
Poll taxes, literacy tests,
Excluded from public schools
"Grandfather Clause" (1895-1910)
Johnson did not have the same political saavy as Lincoln
Determined to make reunification easy
His inflexibility drove moderates into the Radical camp
This war between the executive and legislative branches brought an end to the Presidential stage of Reconstruction
Led by Thaddeus Stevens (House) and Charles Sumner (Senate), Congress took control of Reconstruction
Radical Reconstruction
1867 - 1876
Radicals refuse to seat Southerners in the Congress
Achieve a 2/3 majority over the Johnson (2/1866)
Freedmen's Bureau
14th Amendment -Made all persons citizens of both the US and state of residence -State's representation based on whole population; states denying voting rights to black would have rep reduced -People who fought against US or held Confederate office barred from voting or holding office -Congress could pardon them with a 2/3 vote -Congress refused to assume Confederate debts or reparations
Johnson believed it was unconstitutional
Urged Southern states to vote against 14th Amendment
Campaigned against radical candidates in 1866
14th Amendment becomes law in 1868
Reconstruction Act of 1867
Kept the South under martial law
Divided South into 5 military districts
Ruled by Union generals and provisional governors
Gave blacks the right to vote and hold office
Denied voting rights to former Confederates
States wanting to re-enter had to open conventions to black and white delegates to draw up constitutions
Congress had to approve new constitutions
States had to ratify the 14th Amendment
Scalawags and Carpetbaggers
Carpetbaggers: Northerners who moved south to help with Radical Reconstruction; most were opportunists who sought financial gain; helped bring recovery
Scalawags: white Southerners who supported Radical Reconstruction; looked upon by Southerners as traitors; some saw post-war period as an opportunity for personal gain
Held office in every Southern state
Gained the most power in South Carolina
Hiram Revels (MS), Blanche K. Bruce (MS), Robert Smalls (SC)
The Impeachment of Johnson
Johnson enforced laws passed by Congress
Radicals hated Johnson, but had no grounds for getting rid of him
Sought to limit his powers
Tenure of Office Act
(1867) made it illegal to remove a presidential appointee without consent of the Senate
Johnson tested law with Edwin Stanton (War)
House impeached
Served out the rest of his term
Johnson's Achievements
Foreign affairs policies very successful under
William Seward
Forced withdrawl of French troops from Mexico
Signed commerce treaty with China
Negotiated with Russia to purchase Alaska ($7K) [referred to as "Seward's Folly," "Johnson's Polar Bear Garden" and "Frigidia"
Grant elected president in 1868
Black vote had huge impact on election
Called for passage of 15th Amendment
Ratified in 1870
Grant's two terms filled with scandal
Radicals begin losing support
Redeemer (Bourbon) Reconstruction
People's attitudes toward Reconstruction changing by 1870
Focus on economic prosperity and the West
Paved the way for Redeemer (Bourbon) Reconstruction, led by Southerners called "Redeemers"
General Amnesty Act of 1872 pardons all but a few hundred Confederate leaders
Blacks and Radicals could not match the Democrat organization in the South
Grant growing reluctant to use troops to keep the peace
Election of 1876 disputed popular vote in 3 southern states
Congress names a special commission
Hayes wins vote after promising to remove rest of troops
Democrats regain power in the South
Recovery in the South
system develops; profit only 2/25 years
New South develops out of industrialization: RR, steel and textile industries
Mill towns
Southerners blamed hardships on Republicans
For 100 years Democrats held power; Solid South
In 1866 former Confederate soldiers form the Ku Klux Klan
Civil Rights Act of 1866
(rights and legal protection) and
(equal accommodations in public places; jury duty)
Taxes and spending increase: free public education, prison system, care for the handicapped
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