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How significant were the 1866 Sanitary Act and the 1875 Publ
Transcript of How significant were the 1866 Sanitary Act and the 1875 Publ
~ Objectives ~
~ Sanitary Act 1866 ~
~ Public Health 1875 ~
~ John Simon ~
The 1866 Sanitary Act - a key mover behind this act was John Simon.
Simon also did other things in the public health area, for example he promoted an act that made the adulteration of food illegal, and permitted local authorities to employ public analysts to check food.
He supported vaccinations and trained vaccinators. He persecuted parents who refused to have their children vaccinated against smallpox
He abolished cesspools
~ Sources ~
~ William Farr ~
30 November 1807 – 14 April 1883
was a 19th century British Epidemiologist
William Farr used death certificates to collate statistical evidence linking disease with filth
There have been three Public Health acts-
The 1848 Act was a permissive act enabling local authorities to take responsibility for public health if they wished to do so. It was set up by the three commissioners of the General Board of Health; Lord Shaftesbury, Lord Morpeth and Edwin Chadwick.
The 1872 Public Health Act ensures that the whole country is covered by sanitation authorities and their duties were made compulsory.
The last Act made in 1875 states that it is a mandatory act, codifying and consolidating previous acts.
The Sanitary Act of 1866 made local authorities responsible for the removal of all "nuisances". They were sanctioned if they did not fulfill this. Local Authorities were also given the power to improve or demolish slums.
Sanitary Act forced local authorities to take action to provide fresh water, sewage and waste disposal. This was due to the
Fourth _______ epidemic which resulted in 6,000 deaths.
By the end of this lesson...
Everybody should be able to explain the key features of both Acts
Most of you will be able to assess their successes and limitations
~ Task ~
1875 Public Health Act
This brought together a range of Acts covering
and drains, water supply, housing and
. Local authorities had to appoint
in charge of public health. Local sanitary
were appointed to look after slaughterhouses and prevent
food being sold. Local authorities were ordered to cover sewers,
keep them in good condition,
water to their citizens,
collect rubbish and
provide street lighting.
Can you unscramble these words and copy out a in depth description of the Act ~
~ Task ~
Can you give the name of the disease which resulted in 6000 deaths in 1866?
Its symptoms are Diarrhea, Nausea and vomiting and Dehydration......
~ Information ~
1866 Sanitary Act This made local authorities responsible for sewers, water and street cleaning.
There were numbers of significant legislation developed in the years before 1848. Leeds and Manchester took advantage under the Municipal Corporation Act and assumed control of paving, sewerage, street cleaning and draining.
Central government cared little about public health so town councils had to take it upon themselves. If they wanted to tackle the problems, it was their business.
~ Key Information ~
~ Important Dates ~
Using page 126 can you find what important Acts were passed in these years?
1846- three acts passed
A new authority was proposed that was totally foreign to every principle of the English Constitution. It is departure from the free principles of the Constitution and a gradual usurpation, behind the backs of the people, of the power which ought to belong to the representative of the people. It is one more step towards the adoption of the continental system of centralization.
From a report of the parliamentary debate on the 1847 Public Health Bill, Here is one opponents view given
Suffering and evil are the nature's rebukes; they cannot be got rid of, and impatient attempts of benevolence to banish them from the world by legislation, has always produced more evil than good.
From a journal, The Economist, published in 1848.
In Manchester, gas has for some years been supplied from works erected and conducted by a body appointed (under a local Act) by an elected committee of ratepayers. The supplies of gas are of a better quality, and cheaper than those obtained from private companies in adjacent towns. Improvements are more speedily adopted than through private agreements, and the profits are kept in a public fund. Out of this fund a fine town hall has been erected, streets widened, and various large improvements made.
A proposal was made in Manchester to obtain supplies of water in the same manner as the supplies of gas, but the owners of private pumps, who have the monopoly of the convenient springs, exact double the charge for which even private companies are ready to convey supplies to the houses. And so the proposal was defeated.
From Edwin Chadwick, Report on the Sanitary Conditions of the Laboring Population of Great Britain, published in 1842.
~ Activity ~
Make a table in your book and try to find key points for the successes and limitations of the 1866 Sanitary Act and the 1875 Public Health Act using page 125 onwards and the three sources C,D and E on page 127.
You have 15 minutes
- The government was concerned with the public's health so made the provision of sewers and clean water a key important factor to the Act.-Book Evidence
- Local authorities were left to deal with their own problems with no government help -Book Evidence