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The Kingdoms of Ancient Egypt
Transcript of The Kingdoms of Ancient Egypt
Life in the Old Kingdom
The Old Kingdom lasted for about 500 years.
Fun Fact #1: The first Pharaoh of Egypt was Khufu, who was the most famous ruler of the Old Kingdom
Huge stone tombs built as burial sites for Pharaohs and members of the elite.
The Great Pyramid of Khufu
Pyramids were built by peasants and slaves who were paid in goods such as grains.
The size and shape of a pyramid signified a Pharaoh's importance. The larger and grander a pyramid was, the more powerful the Pharaoh that was buried inside.
Magical spells were placed on pyramids to protect the mummies in the afterlife.
Old Kingdom Continued...
Fun Fact #2: Sometimes it took as many as 100,000 workers to build ONE pyramid!
The Middle Kingdom
The New Kingdom
Fun Fact #3: Hatshepsut wore a false beard, which was a tradition for Pharaohs
Protected by natural barriers -
(rapids) & Sahara Desert
Partially isolated from invaders
Strong leaders from villages began to form small kingdoms called
monarchies (king-led government)
Kings had unlimited power
Two large ruling kingdoms
(south in Nile Valley)
(north in Nile Delta)
King Narmer conquered Lower Egypt & created one large kingdom
Began Egypt's first dynasty
Capital = Memphis
Ancient Egypt had a total of 30
Divided into three kingdoms: Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom and New Kingdom
New government =
Considered a king & a god
Responsible for preventing wars & ensuring growth of crops
was created to help run the government (group of officials led by a Pharaoh's vizier)
Controlled trade & collected taxes
Social classes appeared as the population increased
Key to a strong kingdom = well-ordered society
Traded with people in Nubia & Syria
Goods acquired = gold, copper, wood, stones & slaves
Construction of pyramids & other projects caused the kingdom to lose a LOT of wealth
Pharaohs began to lose power
Nobles began fighting each other for control over Egypt
2050 B.C.E - new dynasty led by Amhose of Thebes reunited Egypt
Funded irrigation projects to cultivate more land
Conquered new lands
Moved the capital to Thebes
Lasted until 1800 B.C.E
Built a canal from the Nile River to the Red Sea
Ships began trading along the coast of the Arabian Peninsula & East Africa
Threats from the Hyksos (western Asians)
Attacked with bronze weapons & horse-drawn chariots
Easily conquered Egypt & their less advanced weapons
Hyksos established a new dynasty
Eventually, the Egyptians overthrew the Hyksos by learning how to make bronze weapons
The new dynasty helped Egypt reach its height of power & glory
Number of routes increased
Taxed conquered lands
Goods acquired = gold, leopard skins & precious stones
New rulers = Amhose & Hatshepsut
Restored abandoned temples & reopened trade routes
Government began strictly controlling ALL routes into Egypt
became Pharaoh after Amhose died
Used money to fund art & architecture projects
(Hatshepsut's stepson) became Pharaoh after Hatshepsut died
Led army to conquer Syria
Set up an empire
Improved the economy by collecting taxes & trading with conquered territories
Came to power (1370 B.C.E)
Supported by Nefertiti (wife)
Decided to change the kingdom's official religion
Declared that only ONE god should be worshiped (Aton - sun god)
Claimed that he was equal to Aton & changed his name to Akhenaton
Failed to maintain military power & died
Replaced by Tutankhamen
Moved the capital to Thebes
He was too young & was easily overthrown
Egyptian army then created a new dynasty
1200s B.C.E - Pharaohs focused on restoring Egypt's glory
Ruled for 67 yrs.
Sent an army to fight off the Hittites in Syria (failed)
Result = treaty pledging to keep permanent peace & to fight as allies against common enemies
1237 B.C.E - Ramses died, leaving no strong ruler to replace him
Libyans & Kushites entered & raided Egypt