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Hypoglossal Nerve (Cranial Nerve XII)

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Beatrice Woods

on 13 September 2012

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Transcript of Hypoglossal Nerve (Cranial Nerve XII)

HYPOGLOSSAL NERVE SLPA 129: Anatomy and Physiology
Professor Larry Boles Beatrice Woods, Brett Snyder, Chelsea Scahill, Hana Imai Controls muscle/motor function of the tongue. Innervates all the intrinsic muscles of the tongue and all but one (palatoglossus) of the extrinsic muscles of the tongue.
Fasciculations (within tongue), range of tongue is reduced, or atrophy of the tongue Relationship to communication:
· Normal: helps with articulation (producing linguadentals, alveolar, glides,liquids, and vowels); swallowing correctly

·General Damage: Dysphonia - speech problem due to disorder of vocal apparatus
Dysphagia - difficulty in swallowing

o Unilateral: damage is mild because unaffected side is able to compensate

o Bilateral: Dysarthria (articulatory disorder- an inability to speak intelligibly) caused by difficulty of elevation of the tip or back of the tongue; slow lingual movements Causes of damage:
· Stroke, bone abnormality at the base of the skull, infection of the brain stem, injury, complications due to surgery, and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ASL) can also cause damage to the Hypoglossal nerve (merk) Bonus! How to conduct a cranial nerve exam:
http://everythingspeech.com/cranial-nerve-exam/ Sources:
2. http://www2.muw.edu/~mharmon/501Ch4stg.html
3. http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-a-hypoglossal-nerve.htm

1. http://antranik.org/peripheral-nervous-system-cranial-nerves/
3.http://www.ghorayeb.com/Tongue_Hypoglossal_Paralysis_886_SQ.jpg The nerve originates in the Hypoglossal Nucleus and emerges in the dorsal aspect of the Medulla Oblongata. It then passes through the Hypoglossal Foramen in the skull Upon passing through the skull the nerve then spirals behind the vagus nerve, and passes between the internal carotid artery and internal jugular vein. After passing deep to the posterior belly of the digastric muscle, it passes into the submandibular region, passes lateral to the hyoglossus muscle and inferior to the lingual nerve and efferently innervates the tongue. Intrinsic Muscles of the Tongue Superior Longitudinal

Inferior Longitudinal


Transversus Main function is to provide tongue with shape! Originate from bone, and mainly function in altering the tongues position. Protrusion, retraction, and side-to-side movement. Extrinsic Muscles Genioglossus


Styloglossus Basic Information "Hypo"- Under; "Glossal"-Tongue Weakness in half of the tongue on the same side as the damage Consequences of Damage UNILATERAL BILATERAL 1. (CRANIAL NERVE XII) Consequences of Damage 2.
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