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History and Methods of Cultural Anthropology, Part 2

Lecture Notes for ANTH001 30 Sept 2015
by

Lisa Garibaldi

on 7 October 2015

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Transcript of History and Methods of Cultural Anthropology, Part 2

1940s
1950s
2010
1920s
2005
History and Methods of Cultural Anthropology Part 2
Franz Boas (1858-1942)
Stressed the importance of historical change
Historical Particularism
holistic/four field approach
Culture as mental phenomenon
Culture and Personality
Enculturation (acculturation)
Many well know students including
Margaret Mead
Ruth Benedict
British Social Anthropology
Inspired by Durkeim's use of an organismic analogy
Human societies as organism
Social Structure as matrix/enclosing form
Social Functions explain how individual actions maintain the whole/system
Theories
Structuralism
Functionalism
Structural functionalism
Characterizes societies in equilibrium
Has been critiqued for ignoring change over time
Cognitive Anthropology 1950s & 1960s
Based on Boasian cultural relativism
Inspired by linguistic methods
ethnoscience
ethnolinguistics
New Ethnography
Explored native cognition and perception
Semantic domain
Culture is seen as a formal system of rules for thought and behavior
Cultural Materialism 1970s
Positivist perspective
in response to Boasian School
People are both subjects and objects for scientific inquiry
Observation is stronger than asking questions, because the subjects might have a false consciousness
Infrastructural determinism
Infrastructure as the interface between humans and nature
Marvin Harris (1927-2001)
Related to the Political Economy approach
Political Economy 1970s
Looks at global economic factors and how they affect people's lives and societies
Development and Underdevelopment (Frank)
World Systems Theory (Wallerstein)
Core/Periphery
Critiqued by anthropologists
There is no ONE world system, but many
Also stresses the two way nature of exchange with the global capitalist system
People have agency choosing to accept, reject, or transform market based economies
Research Ethics
IRB
Local Permission
State level
Community level
Informed consent
Research Methods
From last class

Please note, the discussion of Christianity in the dark ages is not a critique of modern Christianity

Keywords:
Participant Observation
Ethnography
Ethnology
Armchair Anthropology
On the Veranda
Off the Veranda
Malinowski
German-American
Main Theorists:
A.R. Radcliffe-Brown (1881-1955)
Branislaw Malinowski (1884-1942)
E.E. Evans-Prichard (1902-1973)
Emic Etic


Inside Outside
Participation Observation
Main Theorists
Edward Sapir (1884-1939)
Benjamin Lee Whorf (1897- 1941)
Ward Goodenough (1919-2013)
Enculturation:
The Process by which a child is socialized into their culture
Acculturation:
The process by which a person is socialized into another culture.
Like an anthropologist conducting participant observation
Or a person who immigrates to a new country
Both are important for anthropological studies
1970s
New Research Methods
Video
Photography, both by locals and anthropologists
Drawing exercises
polymorphic engagement
utilizing media sources, news, youtube, websites, web forums.
Census
Sampling methods
Map making
Interviews
Focus Groups

Qualitative verses Quantitative
Sociobiology
From Last Class:

Boas
Emic/etic
Enculturated
Acculturated
holism
Positivism
Infrastructure
Qualitative
Quantitative
methodology
Full transcript