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The United States and World War II

Chapter 22: Fighting for the Four Freedoms
by

Britt Christensen

on 14 March 2016

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Transcript of The United States and World War II

Fighting for the Four Freedoms
-U.S. would end intervention in Latin America
-Rearmament of Germany (1933)
-Occupied the Rhineland (1936)
-Assisted fascist coup in Spain (1936)
-Annexed Austria and Sudetenland (1938)
-Campaign against Jewish population
Hitler Makes His Moves...
Japan invades Manchuria (1931)
Mussolini invades and conquers Ethiopia (1935-36)
Francisco Franco leads fascist coup in Spain (1936)
Other Alarming Moves...
How does the following cartoon visually explain the policy of appeasement?
Britain
France
U.S.A.
Identify the arguments supporting American ISOLATIONISM in the 1930s.
1) Activities were very far away
2) Some supported Germany over the Soviet Union and communism
3) Did not want to interfere with business and trade
4) WWI had been a mistake
5) Americans still a "melting pot" with ties to many countries
Toward Intervention
FDR saw Hitler as a threat
(1940) "Cash and carry" agreement with Britain
Became more closely allied with nations fighting against Germany and Japan
LEND-LEASE ACT (1941)
Fighting for the Four Freedoms
Freedom of Speech
Freedom of Worship
Freedom from Fear
Freedom from Want
Mobilizing the for the War Effort
The Wartime Economy
Wartime Production
Mobilizing Troops
After the attack on Pearl Harbor, recruits flooded recruitment agencies
First peacetime draft in U.S. history; men aged 21-35 register with draft boards
Approximately
13 million men served in the armed forces during WWII
Gross National Product rose from $91 billion to $214 billion
War bonds
Increased taxes
Began the practice of withholding income taxes from weekly paychecks
Low interest loans, tax concessions, and contracts with guaranteed profits to spur production

Office of Price Administration
War Manpower Commission
War Production Board
American factories switched to wartime production and new industrial centers were built
Unions gained power, corporations recognized unions, unions signed "no strike" pledges
What is NAZISM?
Form of FASCISM-radical authoritarian nationalism
State is more important than the individual
Biological racism
Antisemitism
Executive Order 9066 (February 1942):
Authorized the internment of tens of thousands of American citizens of Japanese ancestry and resident aliens from Japan
Office of War Information (OWI)
Organized to mobilize public opinion
Wanted to make sure the American people knew the purposes of the war
Fighting fascism as well as the Japanese
Radio, film, the press, and other media
Over time, Congress eliminated most of the funding
Private companies then took over "selling" the war
WWII Propaganda Instructions:
For each page (2 advertisements together), identify:


GI Bill of Rights (1944)
Benefits for returning veterans
Unemployment pay, education scholarships, low-cost mortgage loans, pensions, job training
Most significant piece of social legislation; shaped postwar society
The American Dilemma...
What set the United States apart from its wartime foes, the government insisted, was not only dedication to the ideals of the Four Freedoms but also the principle that Americans of all races, religions, and national origins could enjoy those freedoms equally.
Was this true during the World War II era?
Zoot Suit Riots (1943):
Club-wielding sailors and policemen attacked Mexican-American youths in Los Angeles
Albert Einstein
The Manhattan Project
Warned of the possibility of nuclear weapons
Stated that Germany was actively pursuing nuclear weapons
Robert Oppenheimer
Edward Teller
Leo Szilard/Enrico Fermi
Created first human-controlled chain reaction involving neutrons
Leslie Groves
Letter to FDR (1939):
Skim the letter sent by Einstein to FDR. What was Einstein's purpose in sending the letter?
Create two lists of reasons:
1) Support the use of the atomic bomb
2) Oppose the use of the atomic bomb
Planning the Postwar World
Potsdam Conference
(July 1945)
Uneasy relations among the three Allies as neither Britain nor the United States trusted Stalin
What were the concerns of the "Big Three?"
Stalin (Russia):
Churchill (Great Britain):

Conference to shape post-war economic world

"No matter how great our strength, we must deny ourselves the license to do always as we please. This is the price which each nation will have to pay for world peace...And what a reasonable price that is."
Structure of the United Nations (UN):
General Assembly
Security Council-responsible for world peace
Britain, China, France, Soviet Union, U.S.A.
Six rotating members
Each had power to veto resolutions
Outlawed force or threat of force as means to settle international disputes
"Good Neighbor Policy (1930s)"
Soviets had done majority of fighting against the Germans
Wanted to make eastern Europe a Soviet "sphere of influence"
Retain control of Baltic states and eastern Poland
Establish communism in eastern Europe
Did not trust Stalin OR Truman
Rejected American pressure to start British colonies on "road to independence"
Private deals with Stalin to divide Europe into "spheres of influence"
Believed America wanted too much control over post-war world economy
Think back to the Atlantic Charter (1941) and Four Freedoms speech (1941):
1) Final destruction of Nazi tyranny
2) Open access to markets
3) Right of "all peoples" to choose their form of government
4) A global extension of the New Deal
5) Freedom from fear and want

Were these goals accomplished????
"I Used to Know Your Daddy"
(1936)
1) What significance do you attach to the depiction of war as a female and a prostitute?

2) To whom does the woman refer when she speaks of the youth's "daddy?"
The Atlantic Charter
(August 1941/January 1942)
Joint declaration between U.S. and Great Britain
Vision for postwar world
Support from 26 Allied nations
Key to establishing UN in 1945
V-E Day:
May 8th, 1945
Yalta Conference
(February 1945)
Tentative plans between the U.S., Great Britain, and Soviet Union
"In the field of World policy, I would dedicate this nation to the policy of the good neighbor, the neighbor who resolutely respects himself and, because he does so, respects the rights of others, the neighbor who respects his obligations and respects the sanctity of his agreements in and with a World of neighbors."
FDR (1933)
Actions when against the Treaty of Versailles
Important Concept:
Fascism
Authoritarian leadership
Extreme nationalism
VERY right-wing
In order for a nation to respond effectively to challenges, all aspects must be mobilized under a totalitarian, one-party state.
1. Strong loyalty to a leader
2. Use of violence and terror
3. Strong military
4. Censorship and government control of news
5. Restriction of civil liberties
6. Extreme nationalism
7. State control of the economy
8. Strict discipline
9. Rule by dictator
10. Use of propaganda to gain support
Characteristics of Fascist States:
While all of this is happening, nations like Britain and France practice
Appeasement:
The policy of making concessions to the dictatorial powers in order to avoid conflict
Policy especially supported by British PM Neville Chamberlain
Why Appeasement?
1) The legacy of the "Great War" in France and Britain generated a strong public and political desire to achieve ‘peace at any price’
2) Neither country was militarily ready for war or had the resources to become ready in a short amount of time
3) Many British politicians believed that Germany had genuine grievances resulting from Versailles
4) Britain saw its principle threat as Communism rather that fascism
Selective Service Act (1940)
Federal Agencies
HUGE federal mobilization
Clothing was seen as unpatriotic and extravagent in a time of war
Sign of continued ethnic tensions, even as Mexican-American men were over-represented in the military as a percentage of their population
Physics professor
Developed the neutron calculations that were necessary to harness the power of nuclear reactions
"Father of the Atomic Bomb"
Army general
In charge of security for the Manhattan Project
German physicist
"Father of the Hydrogen Bomb"
Bretton Woods (July 1944):
The dollar=
main international currency
Established the World Bank
International Monetary Fund=
regulate currency around the world
U.S. as the leader of an international capitalist system
International free trade
"The Great Arsenal of Democracy"
(December 29th, 1940)
1) According to FDR, how did events in Europe and Asia threaten American interests?

2) How did FDR describe Great Britain's role in the international conflict?
3) What actions did FDR propose?
"Buzz" Words:
Fascism
Nazism
Appeasement
H
I
P
P
O
istorical context
ntended audience
oint of view
urpose or goal
rganization
What is happening at this point in history? How is this relevant?
Who was meant to read/hear/see this document?
What perspective is represented in the document?
What was the goal of the document?
How can this document help to support the thesis and arguments contained in the response?
Analyzing Documents
I
P
P
ntended audience
oint of view
urpose or goal
Who/what is portrayed as the "enemy?"
O
rganization
“A free nation has the right to expect full cooperation from all groups. A free nation has the right to look to the leaders of business and labor to take the lead in stimulating effort and the people to provide cooperation in all areas….” To what extent did the United States government rely in this cooperation to make the war effort a success?
"Japanese leaders in California who are counseling their people, both aliens and native-born, to co-operate with the Army in carrying out the evacuation plans are, in effect, offering the best possible way for all Japanese to demonstrate their loyalty to the United States."
"That is a clear-cut policy easily understood. Its execution should be supported by all citizens of whatever racial background, but especially it presents an opportunity to the people of an enemy race to prove their spirit of co-operation and keep their relations with the rest of the population of this country on the firm ground of friendship."
"Real danger would exist for all Japanese if they remained in the combat area. The least act of sabotage might provoke angry reprisals that easily could balloon into bloody race riots.

We must avoid any chance of that sort of thing. The most sensible, the most humane way to insure against it is to move the Japanese out of harm’s way and make it as easy as possible for them to go and to remain away until the war is over."

"The Best Way to Show Loyalty"
Editorial from The San Francisco News (1942)
Plans to "shape" the postwar world began long before the war was even over....
(1941) Atlantic Charter
(1944) Bretton Woods
(1945) Yalta Conference
V-J Day:
August 14th/15th, 1945
Full transcript