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The Chemistry of Clothes and Fashion

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Victoria Lopez

on 3 June 2013

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Transcript of The Chemistry of Clothes and Fashion

Fabrics Chances are, that there is fabric in your house, whether it be on your clothing, on your furniture, or even on your backpack. Fabric is everywhere, and so is chemistry. The chemistry of fabrics just so happens to be about the following:
Nylon
Polyester
Spandex
Silk Nylon Nylon is a synthetic material invented by the Du Pont chemical company in 1927. Wallace Carothers lead the research team to invent this new material which he wanted to be as strong and soft as silk. However, the technique used to produce silk is difficult and expensive, so Carothers found another way. Chemistry The Of Clothes And Fashion By: Victoria Lopez
Chemistry Project 2013 Introduction We wear clothes every day, but when you think of Chemistry, Clothing and fashion probably isn't the first thing that pops into your head. But little do we know that many fabrics and dyes are based on chemical compisitions and chemical reactions. This presentation will present what these fabrics and dyes are and how they relate to chemistry! Polyester Spandex Silk Synthetic Fabrics Wallace Carothers decided to invent a new material by using a bigger molecule (also known as making a polymer). This was achieved by joining smaller molecules together to create the big one. This took ten years for Carothers to create a polymer that was similar to silk and could become a fabric. Today, nylon is produced as it was in the lab in which it was created in. Liquid nylon is blown through small nozzles which produces a fiber thinner than human hair. After the liquid solidifies, its stretched and the molecules bind together, then woven to make cloth. Today, Nylon is used everywhere and can be found almost anywhere. For instance, nylon can be found in swimsuits, shorts, stockings, parachutes, tents etc. etc. Uses of Polyester: leggings, Fibers (and microfibers) for fabric, Bottles, Foils, Photographic film, Liquid crystal displays, and Holograms All of these fabrics mentioned were Synthetic Fabrics (Excluding Silk). Synthetic fabrics are manufactured fabrics that are invented based on their use. Bibliography http://www.slideshare.net/Atyler99/chemistry-of-fabrics
http://humantouchofchemistry.com/the-colourful-truth-about-dyes.htm
http://indianapublicmedia.org/amomentofscience/from-chemistry-lab-to-clothing
http://www.chemistrydaily.com/chemistry/Polyester
http://www.chemistryexplained.com/Pl-Pr/Polyesters.html
http://www.madehow.com/Volume-2/Polyester.html
http://www.madehow.com/Volume-4/Spandex.html
http://www.madehow.com/Volume-2/Silk.html Polymer A polymer is a substance that has a molecular structure built from a large number of similar units which were bonded together. Its derived from coal, air, water, and petroleum. It was formed in the 20th-century from a chemical reaction between an acid and alcohol. In this reaction, two (or more) molecules combine to make a large molecule whose structure repeats throughout its length. Polyester fibers can form very long molecules that are very stable and strong. Poly Ester Means many A basic organic chemical compound The principle ingredient is ethylene, which is derived from petroleum. Spandex is made from a long chain polymer called polyurethane. Polyurethane is produced by reacting a polyester with a diisocyanate. The polymer is converted into a fiber using a dry spinning technique. Used to make stretchable clothing. Ex: Sportswear Spandex was initially developed as a replacement for rubber. Spandex is an elastomer, which means it can be stretched to a certain degree and recoil when released. The elastic property of spandex comes from its chemical composition. Its made up of numerous polymer strands. The polymer strands consist of two types of segments: long, amorphous segments and short, rigid segments. The the amorphous segments have a random molecular structure and intermingle to make the fibers soft The short, rigid portions bond with each other to give the fiber structure. When a force is applied to the fibers, the bonds between the rigid sections are broken, and the amorphous segments straighten out. When the fiber is stretched to its maximum length, the rigid segments bond with each other and the amorphous segments remain elongated. This makes Spandex stiffer and stronger. After the force is removed, the amorphous segments recoil and the fiber returns to its original relaxed state. By using the elastic properties of spandex fibers, scientists can create fabrics that have characteristics such as strength and stretching The secret to silk production is the silkworm The origins of silk date back to Ancient China and initially, the Chinese were very protective of their secret to making silk. Sericulture is the cultivation of silkworms in order to produce silk. Sericulture has been refined and developed in to a science. It involves raising eggs and then destroying the inside of the chrysalis before it can break out in order for the silk filament to remain in tact. The healthiest moths are then chosen for breeding. Each cocoon produces between 1,000 to 2,000 feet of silk filament on average. Natural Fabrics Natural Fabrics are fabrics that come from animals, vegetables, or minerals. The one example in this presentation was Silk. Other examples are wool and cotton. The End "The Story of SIlk"
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