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Transcript of Sugar
Time! White Sugar History By: Rebekah Camara, Rachel Dawson,
Eden Lewis & Daisy Ng. Alternative Sweeteners Production Chemical Makeup Nutritional Value Uses in the Bakery History Production Chemical Makeup Uses in the Bakery Interesting Facts Honey Maple Syrup Agave Nectar Stevia Interesting Facts Nutritional Value In its first introduction to Europe through the crusades in the eleventh and twelfth centuries cane sugar was a valuable commodity and was mostly reserved for medicinal uses. As sugar demand increased slaves were brought from Africa to work on the sugar plantations in the New World and this meant that sugar was more redily available to the middle class Europeans in the 1800s. Sugar beet processing was refined in the 1800s and anti-slavery movements encouraged the further use of sugar beet cultivation. Sugar beets have been selectively grown to contain over double the amount of its predecessors from the 1700s and more than sugar cane. The sugar cane, once harvested, is crushed to extract the juice
This juice is brought to a concentrate through the evaporation of the water, and then further concentrated over low heat. The water evaporation causes the sugar to become supersaturated, and sugar crystals to form. This is then centrifuged, or spun, so that the dark syrup (molasses) separates from the crystals
The newly separated crystals are then washed and recentrifuged to remove more molasses resulting in a light brown crude sugar. Further refinement is required, which consists of washing, centrifuging, clarifying and filtering
Reproduced images of gross looking microbs, claiming that brown sugar contained minute insects. Brown sugar wasn't widely used until 1600s
It became popular when Europeans set up sugar plantations in the Caribbean. Same process is used to make brown sugar as white sugar. One further step is taken:
Blending, in where the manufacturers take the refined white sugar and combine it with refiner's syrup, or molasses Molasses was first seen in 1582, as part of a Portuguese journal detailing the conquest in the West Indies.
Up until the 1880s, it was the most popular sweetener in the Americas. However, after WWI, the prices of refined sugar dropped drastically, causing more people to choose white and brown sugars. Molasses is, of course, the liquid left over after sugar crystals have been taken out of sugarcane
It is classified depending on how many times the syrup has been removed from the sugar crystals, which are called strikes.
The more strikes the syrup goes through, the darker the colour and more intense the flavour will be The chemical make up of brown sugar varies between the different grades. Sucrose: 85%-92%
Caramel & other impurities i.e. minerals: 4.5%-8.5% The chemical composition of molasses also depends on its grade.
Up to 20% organic matter such as betaine
Up to 1% minerals such as calcium & magnesium Brown sugar adds the rich flavour of molasses and additional moisture to baked goods. Because it has some acidity, brown sugar can be used with baking soda to leaven products. It is used in place of white sugar when colour & flavour are desired. Brown sugar was once available in 15 grades. It is now only available in 4 grades on a retail basis: light brown, golden brown, medium brown and dark brown. Brown sugar remains easy to handle if its moisture content remains constant. If the moisture is evaporated, the sugar will become cement and impossible to work with.
Some suppliers will offer brown sugar syrup, brown sugar flavours and granulated brown sugar as alternatives. Turbinado sugar: raw can sugar with larger
grains and lighter colour. A healthier option to white sugar Demerara sugar: a crystalline brown sugar that
is dryer than brown sugar. It is mostly used as a sweetener with tea or coffee History
The earliest depictions of honey harvesting were found as cave drawings in Valencia, Spain, over 8000 years ago.
History of honey use has been found all over the world.
Archaeologists have found remnants of honeycomb in the tombs of Egyptian pharaohs
Honey has even been referred to in religious books like the Bible and the Koran i.g. the Old Testament refers to Israel as "land flowing of milk and honey"
In the 10th century, English royalty fermented a honey wine well known as mead. Chemical Makeup
Composed of Carbs (82%), proteins, amino acids, vitamins minerals and antioxidants, and a few other compounds
Monosaccharides: fructose and glucose
Disaccharides: Sucrose, maltose, isomaltose, maltulose, turanose, kojibiose
Oligosaccharides: erlose, theanderose, and panose
Proteins : invertase - inverts sucrose to glucose and fructose
Amylase – converts starch into simple sugars
Glucose Oxidase – converts glucose to hydrogen peroxide
Catalase – breaks down peroxide into water and oxygen and acid phosphorylase (removes inorganic phosphate from organic phosphate
Amino acids, most abundant is proline
Vitamins – trace amounts of vitamin b,b6, c, riboflavin, niacin, folic acid, pantothenic acid
Minerals – Calcium, Iron, zinc, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, selenium, chromium, manganese
Anti-oxidants – darker the honey the more anti oxidants are in it
Also contains organic acids. Production
Starts out as nectar in flowers, collected by bees. The nectar is gathered in the bees stomaches, which is then regurgitated to the worker bees.
The worker bees transform the nectar into honey by regurgitating it over and over again, evaporating the water.
Bee keepers remove the framed combs and spin them in a honey extractor, removing the honey. Uses in the Bakery
Honey can be used in the bakery in a number of ways. You can use it to enhance caramelization, as a binding agent, as a tenderizer.
It also adds its own flavour, colour, nutrients, vitamins and antioxidants and it retains moisture. And because it retains moisture, it also allows the product to have a longer shelf life. History
Native Americans were the first to collect maple syrup.
When European settlers first came to North America, the Natives taught them how to tap the syrup from the trees
Settlers took this practice further and took the sap to "sugar shacks" where they would boil this sap down to a thick syrup.
During the Civil War, Union households would use maple syrup to boycott the use of cane sugar, which was harvested by slaves
Now, maple syrup mostly comes from Quebec. Nutritional Value
Maple sugar contains sugars, water, minerals, organic acids, amino acids, proteins, phenol compounds and a few vitamins Production
Maple syrup is mostly In Quebec, Ontario, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. We produce 85% of the world's maple syrup.
As the trees grow, they create starch, it then converts to sugar in the spring thaw and mixes with water absorbed through tree roots.
Producers use tubing systems, reverse osmosis, and evaporators which have made the industry much more efficient Uses in the Bakery
Like honey, maple syrup adds flavour, colour, moisture, nutrients, vitamins and antioxidants. It also acts as a binding agent, like honey. But it has less calories than honey, corn syrup or sugar. History
The original inhabitants in western Mexico worshipped the goddess Mayaheul who was represented by the agave plant.
The Spanish conquistadors arrived in 1492 the agave plant and were introduced to this ancient plant and the began exporting it around the old world in 1520.
1600, the first tequila distillery set up by Don Pedro Sanches de Tagle, Marquis of Altamina
There was a short ban on the production of tequila between 1785-1792, and after Mexican independence from Spanish rule in 1821, agave farms began to flourish.
By the end of the 1800s, the production of tequila became very important to the Mexican economy.
In the 1990s, production of organic agave syrup began.
Today, 10% of total agave production used for syrup from blue agave. Chemical Compenents
Moisture % 22.4-21.4
Dry matter % 77.4-78.4
Ash % 0.09-0.19
Total Carbohydrates % 99.6-99.9
D-Fructose % 70-72.4
Dextrose (Glucose) % 26.6-24.2 Production
The agave leaves are removed from the base of the plant and the base is taken to a facility where it is heated to 118F in a pressure cooker.
Its then chopped filtered and sent through a centrifuge and poured into bottles.
The pina (aka heart)’s juice is extracted and it is then filtered to create agave syrup. Any natural solids are removed through a fine filtration process. Uses in the Bakery
Agave syrup adds additional flavour, nutrients and vitamins. It is also gluten-free, allergen free and safe for diabetics. It is organic and kosher certified. History
Stevia is a perennial plant indigenous to the Amambay Mountains in South America.
The natives would use the leaves to enhance the flavor of bitter mate ( a tea-like beverage ), for medicinal purposes, or the chew on.
In the 1800s consumption of stevia became a daily occurence in Paraguay, Brazil and Argentina.
Stevia was then introduced to Japan in 1970 and it quickly became the country's most popular sweetener, being used in ice cream, bread, candies, pickles, seafood, vegetables and soft drinks.
Today, used in many countries including, China, Germany, Malaysia, Israel, and South Korea. Production
1. Climatic Range – semi humid, sub tropical climates, -6 – 43C, can only be grown as an annual plant in Ontario. It dies in hard winter
2. Soil - Infertile, acidic soils, also can be grown in more neutral soils. Not in saline soils.
3. Land Preparation- should be plowed and cultivated twice for a smooth firm surface
4. Transplants – must be from seed in plug trays in green house for 7 – 8 weeks
5. Planting – early/mid may plugs are planted
6. Fertilization – appears to have low nutrient requirements a soil test should be conducted though
7. Irrigation – required when the stem tips begin to droop.
8. Weed Control – may require hand hoeing and weeding
9. Pests – deer may be a problem as they like the sweet taste of the plant, and cutworm as well.
10. Harvesting – mid/late September when its 40 – 60 cm in height. Best to pick just before flowering
11. Drying – the leaves and woody stems are dried using a drying wagon or kiln. Generally takes 24 – 48 hrs at 40 – 50C. 21,500 kg/ha is dried to 6,000 kg/ha
12. Threshing – Specially designed thresher to separate stems from leaves. Approx 3,000 kg/ha each
13. Packaging – leaves are packaged in plastic lined cardboard boxes and labeled for further processing Sucralose Sorbitol Saccharin Aspartame History
Splenda was discovered in 1976 and approved by Canada in 1991. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Splenda as a nonnutritive sweetener in 1998, and as a general-purpose sweetener in 1999. It is now approved in more than 80 countries and is used worldwide in over 4,000 commercial products such as no-sugar added fruit, diet soft drinks, and reduced-sugar juices. Nutritional Value
600x sweeter than sugar Chemical makeup Uses in the Bakery
Replace the white sugar in your baking recipes with half the amount of sucralose. For instance, if your baking recipe calls for 2 cups of sugar, substitute 1 cup of sucralose. Sucralose does not brown in the same manner as regular sugar. Do not substitute all of the granulated sugar in your baking with sucralose if your recipe calls for yeast. Unlike sugar, sucralose does not activate yeast. History
They were found to occur naturally in small amounts in fruits and vegetables, but for large-scale commercial use they are manufactured from common sugars. Nutritional Value
Carbohydrate: less than 1.0g
Total Fat: 0.0g
0.50 -0.70x as sweet as sugar Chemical makeup Uses in the Bakery
Sorbitol is normally used in commercial products.
The moisture-stabilizing and textural properties of sorbitol are used in the production of confectionery, baked goods and chocolate where products tend to become dry or harden. Sorbitol is not as good for baking however, because breads and pastries baked using sorbitol will not brown in the oven History
James M. Schlatter, a chemist, unintentionally discovered it. He was working on an anti-ulcer drug. As Mr. Schlatter mixed asparatic acid and phenylalanine, two naturally occurring amino acids that are the building blocks of protein. He stuck his finger in the mixture and for some reason decided to taste it. "I licked my finger and it tasted good." He later recalled. And with that, a new, low-calorie sweetener was born. Nutritional Value
Carbohydrate: less than 1.0g
Total Fat: 0.0g
200x sweeter than sugar Chemical Makeup Uses in the Bakery
In recipes requiring lengthy heating or baking, a loss of sweetness may occur. Therefore, it is best to use tabletop sweeteners with aspartame in specially suggested and tested recipes History
Saccharin is a man-made sweetener that is used in food products in many countries. In the 1970s, scientific studies raised concerns that saccharin could be carcinogenic (cancer-causing) in laboratory rats. As a result of these studies, saccharin was not permitted as a food additive in Canada, although restricted use of saccharin as a table-top sweetener has been allowed. Since that time, further studies have revealed that the carcinogenic effect of saccharin in rats does not have the same effect on humans. The sugar substitute industry inception occurred largely by accident in 1879 when two Johns Hopkins University scientists who were hoping to discover a wonder drug instead found saccharine - a non-nutritive coal-tar derivative that is 300 times sweeter than sugar. Nutrition Value
200-700x sweeter than sugar Chemical Makeup Uses in the Bakery
Saccharin is heat-stable, but baked foods made with saccharin produce the best results when only part of the sugar is replaced, not all of it. When cooking, use the equivalent amount suggested on the package for the amount of sugar. Frozen Margarita Pie Maple Pecan Pie Honey Cakes Marco Polo was the first to report on sugar cultivation and brown sugar usage in Asia. Sugar cultivation eventually spread to the Middle East and the Mediterranean.