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Copy of Data analysis, intrepretation and presentation
Transcript of Copy of Data analysis, intrepretation and presentation
Observation Interview Advantages Interviewer can guide interviewee if necessary.
Encourages contact between developers and users. Disadvantages Time consuming.
Artificial environment may intimidate interviewee. What are the advantages and disadvantages of interviews? http://chezsams.blogspot.de/2011/03/tv-interview.html The Interviews Advantages and disadvantages Focus Groups a group of people are asked about their perceptions, opinions, beliefs, and attitudes towards a product, service, concept, advertisement, idea, or packaging. http://image.shutterstock.com/display_pic_with_logo/713776/713776,1301890288,4/stock-photo-focus-group-discussion-74542309.jpg What are the advantages and disadvantages of focus group? The focus group Advantages and disadvantages Questionnaires A questionnaire is a research instrument consisting of a series of questions and other prompts for the purpose of gathering information from respondents. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f4/Questionnaire.jpg What are the advantages and disadvantages of Questionnaires? The Questionnaires Advantages and disadvantages Advantages Can reach many people with low resources.
have standardized answers "Closed questions" that make it simple to compile data.
cheap and not require much effort. Disadvantages the design is crucial.
response rate may be low.
responses may not be expected. Observation http://www.helping-headhunters.de/grafik/executive-search-stress-interview.jpg interview could be: structured.
unstructured. Questionnaires could be: paper based
web based Observation could be: direct observation.
indirect observation. What are the advantages and disadvantages of Observation? The Observation Advantages and disadvantages Advantages Observation can gives insights that other techniques can't give.
data gathered can be highly reliable.
the analyst is able to see what is being done. Disadvantages people feel uncomfortable being watched, they may perform differently when being observed.
Very time consuming.
Huge amounts of data. By
A.Oliver Qualitative and Quantitative data What is the difference between Qualitative and Quantitative data? Qualitative data Data that is difficult to measure, count or express in numerical terms.
Deals more with descriptions.
Things that can be observed.
Comes from open questions.
http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-32VFENSPo68/T3nYlmZr1iI/AAAAAAAABNc/0kcfB61ZMqM/s1600/quality%2Bcontrol1.jpg Quantitative data http://www.mathsisfun.com/data/images/data-types.gif Data that is in the form of number or can be easily translated into numbers.
Comes from closed questions. Examples of Quantitative and Qualitative data Can you give think of examples of Qualitative and Quantitative data? http://school.discoveryeducation.com/clipart/images/thinkingcapwhoa.gif Advantages Disadvantages Generating new information
Encourages contact between developers and users. Confusion with too many participants
Possibility of dominant characters. Different methods of analysing data Computer data analysis
Simple or complex tables
http://www.dashboardinsight.com/CMS/6a14c7e0-e9b5-42a0-b943-c60346395a27/Martin-Dec-2010.jpg Initial process for the interview data Raw interview data is usually in the form of video, audio recordings and interviewer notes. The first steps are:
Transcription of recordings.
Expansion of notes. http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_uOmdPhaWgig/Spa8wkS6yJI/AAAAAAAAAzQ/pe3UErrx_KA/s400/transcript.jpg Initial process for the Questionnaires data Raw data from questionnaires consists of the respondents' answers to the questions, and these may be in written format, or for online surveys, the data is likely to be in a database. The first steps are:
Filter into different data sets.
Clean up data. http://www.adkad.com/images/cleanup-professional-landscape-service-business-software-1.png http://static.pentalogic.net/filterpoint/filtering_options.png Initial process for the Observations data This kind of data gathering can result in a wide variety of raw data including. observer's notes, photographs, data logs, think-aloud protocols, video and audio recordings The first steps are:
Expansion of notes.
Transcription of recordings.
Synchronization between data recordings. http://www.pamil-visions.net/wp-content/uploads/2009/08/information-overload-cartoon.jpg Simple Quantitative analysis Averages and percentages are fairly well-known numerical measures. Percentages are useful for standardizing the data and compare two or more large sets of responses. There are three different types of average mean, median, and mode. http://www.psmag.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/mmw_skepticscafe0430.jpg http://farm6.static.flickr.com/5304/5574735411_0089ef15ac_o.jpg Examples of Qualitative data analysis software For qualitative data there are two types:
The first supports the categorization and theme-based analysis of data.
The second supports the quantitative analysis of text-based data. For Quantitative data there are many software used such as:
SAS Examples of Quantitative data analysis software http://www.etoshop.com/kaipics/SPSS10.jpg http://www.aspiresoftwareintl.com/assets/images/big_excelanova.gif http://www.bevanengineering.com/images/stat_screen.gif Presenting the findings The best way to present findings depends on the audience, and the original goals of the study.
There are three kinds of presentation style:
Summarizing the findings http://www.business-clipart.com/business_clipart_images/pencil_cartoon_character_presenting_a_business_presentation_using_a_chart_or_graph_0521-1005-1515-3414_SMU.jpg Rigorous notations A number of rigorous notations have been developed to analyze, capture, and present information for interaction design.
These notations have clear syntax and semantics.
Logical notations http://codinghorror.typepad.com/.a/6a0120a85dcdae970b0120a86d5d92970b-pi http://dcmms.sourceforge.net/doc/administration/figure/uml_legend.png Using stories Storytelling is an easy and intuitive approach for people communicate the ideas and experiences. Storytelling may be employed in three ways:
participants telling their own stories
Stories about participants
Stories about repeated patterns http://www.frisch-gebloggt.de/wpcontent/uploads/2011/08/Storytelling.jpg Summarizing the findings Clearly written reports with an overview at the beginning and a detailed content list make for easy reading and a good reference document. http://eisenacher.weebly.com/uploads/5/1/1/8/5118667/5328072.png Qualitative Analysis There are three methods of analysing Qualitative data:
Discourse analysis Identifying recurring patterns or themes requires the researcher to be immersed in the data
study goals provide an orienting focus for the formulation of themes
Not directly relevant to the goal's study
keep clear and consistent records of what has been found and a closed description of themes or patterns that are emerging Example of identifying themes Bell (2001) reports on ethnographic research in Italy, Germany, France, the UK, and Spain that focused on European culture.
They found four significant themes:
- media experiences
- consumption habits
- and life outside home. http://marinagogeanu.files.wordpress.com/2011/02/01_intro.jpg Affinity diagram Another tool that can be used to help to analysis collected information is the Affinity diagram. Allows large number of ideas to be sorted into groups, based on their natural relationships. Process:
Record each idea on cards or notes
Look for ideas that seem to be related
Sort cards into groups until all cards have been used http://wiki.fluidproject.org/download/attachments/2392432/100_1884_small.jpg Categorizing data Gathered data can be analyzed at a fine level of detail also. Categorizing schema don't overlap categories two persons better than one to analyze the same data sample data divided up into elements and each element is then categorized Looking for critical incidents Data gathering usually result in a lot of data. Analyze all in detail = very time-consuming. Third technique we can use is the “critical incident technique”. Two basic principles: Reporting facts regarding behavior is preferable to the collection of interpretations, ratings and opinions based on general impressions. Reporting should be limited to those behaviors which make a significant contribution to the activity being observed, in either a desirable or undesirable way. Examples GPS failure Sharp Using theoretical frameworks This approach depends less on the study goals to focus analysis. Three frameworks commonly used to structure the data gathered in the field: Grounded theory (Glaser & Strauss, 1967) Aims to develop theory from the analysis and interpretation of empirical data. “A set of well-developed concepts related through statements of relationship, which together constitute an integrated framework that can be used to explain or predict phenomena.” Strauss & Corbin, 1998 Grounded theory (Glaser & Strauss, 1967) Category identification and definition is achieved by coding the data. Three aspects: How useful is a grounded theory approach to analysis? Emphasizes the important role of empirical data in the derivation of theory. Distributed cognition (Hutchins) “Theoretical account of the distributed nature of cognitive phenomena across individuals, artifacts, and, internal and external representations” (Hutchins, 1995) The basic insight of the theory of distributed cognition is that cognitive phenomena generally are best understood as distributed processes. http://jareddonovan.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2009/03/distributed_cognition-450px.png Examples of Distributed cognition Improving communication between pilots http://i.ytimg.com/vi/cFUn9Bb9aJA/0.jpg Developing new training materials for pilots http://www.baseops.net/flightsimulators/microsim2.jpg Example for a call center work (Halversson & Ackerman) Operators work under a lot of pressure
Need to form their answers in 45 – 60 seconds
Many of the queries are similar. Developing or routines Joan's workplace: Example for a call center work (Halversson & Ackerman) Halverson and Ackermann represent the short sequence of events in a diagrammatic form How useful is distributed cognition? Activity theory Product of Soviet psychology that explains human behavior in terms of our practical activity with the world. Part of the attempt to produce a Marxist psychology Vygotsky (1926), Leontiev (1978) Focuses analysis around an activity and help to identify tensions .
AT outlines two key models: one which outlines what constitutes an activity and one which models the mediating role of artifacts. The individual model AT models activities in a hierarchical way. The role of artifacts Can be physical, such as a book or a stone, or they can be abstract, such a system of symbols or a set of rules. Physical artifacts have physical properties that cause humans to respond to them as direct objects to be used.
Leontiev (1981) describes the process of learning these properties as 'appropriation': the active nature of the learning that is needed. The role of artifacts Abstract artifacts follows from the idea of 'meditation'. A fundamental characteristic of human development is the change from a direct mode of acting on the world to one that is mediated by something else. In AT, the artifacts involved in an activity between the elements of it. Recent developments in AT The classic view of an activity has a subject (who performs the activity) and an object (on which the activity is performed). Example Collins (2002) with IT support team, set up to identify the tools needed by customer support engineers whose job is to document solution to costumers problems.
They used the Engeström version of AT. How useful is activity theory? Performing an AT analysis enables researchers and designers to identify the tensions in workplace leading to specific needs for new technological tools.
Expertise and a good background in the Soviet version of activity theory are recommended to become competent in it. Similar to the distributed cognition approach. interview Questionnaires focus group observation numbers context average mean median mode filter data clean up data notes recordings synchronization Qualitative analysis patterns categorizing schema critical incidents chart Bar Pie scatter Tools for Analyzing SPSS STAT SAS Theoretical framework Grounded theory Distributed cognition Activity theory Presenting the results Rigorous notations stories summarizing http://www.wondercomments.com/comment/thank_you_comment_21.jpg http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-5-7wNr3HuBo/T5VBYqMhVEI/AAAAAAAAGlo/PjwY4ItcjjQ/s1600/f-15-in-flight.jpg Grounded theory
Activity theory Open coding.
Selective coding. Categories, their properties and dimensions are discovered in the data. Process of relating categories to their subcategories. Refining and integrating categories to form a larger theoretical scheme. Organized around one central category that forms the backbone of the theory. Looking at the example, to an outsider, the routine call would appear to involve a simple request. This analysis reveals it to be a complex cognitive task.
This conscientious level of analysis is very costly. However, in large-scale and safety critical projects, where more time and resources are available in can be a valuable analytic tool to use. Quantitative analysis Percentages N6 Nvivo9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 The methods used to analyse information
depends on whether the data is qualitative or quantitative