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Katie Crooks

on 22 October 2012

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Transcript of Administration

Foundation Drive Supervision Leadership Theories Organizational Goals Core Bureaucratic Structure: Definitions: Views of Administration: Administration 1. Administration: Manage organizations to ensure that their goals are met and enhance growth
2. Formal Organization: Utilize all resources in order to achieve goals Administration for All Organizational Forms: Responsible for interpreting the organizations goals, policies and procedures
Compile the organizations procedure manual
Ensure the organizations efficiency and effectiveness in growth and development
Monitor performance for opportunities of improvement Distinctive Features of Social Welfare Organizations: Improve the clients well-being and psychosocial functioning
Must be flexible due to the type of work where there is responsibility for human problemsLarge turnover rate due to under staffed, over worked and low-salaryLack of up-to-date technologyLack of funding Classical Management:
Employee functions as an appendage to industrial environment
Employees provide greatest output when they have little freedom of choice
Motivation is economic
Pay determined by output
Efficiency occurs when workers engage in specialized, repetitive tasks that do not require individual judgment Human Relations:
Social and psychological factors beyond the reach of formal authority are influential in determining levels of production
Employee cannot be viewed as industrial machine
There are non-economic motivations as people can derive satisfaction from their work Structuralists:
Combination of Classical Management and Human Relation theories
There are strains between organizational needs and personal needs. There will always be conflict between the two
There are both economic and non-economic social motivations
There are formal and informal organizational structures Decision-Making School:
Process of decision making in organization and influential forces
Concept of striving for a level of acceptable achievement rather than the maximum possible Systems:
Organization viewed as a system of interacting, interdependent parts
Organizational Processes:
Input: Clients, funds
Throughput: Family counseling
Output: Clients with improved psychosocial functioning Executive Administrative Functions: Planning:
Establishing the mission or purpose of an organization and the reason for its' existence. Organizing:
Establishing a formal structure through which work is arranged, coordinated and implemented
Formal Organizational Structure
Informal Organizational Structure
Organizational Chart
Determine span of control
Decide structure of agency Staffing:
Personnel functions, or Human Resource Management
Personnel recruitment
Manpower utilization
Staff development and training
Provide support
Form committees Directing: the leadership aspect of an administrator's work
Guiding the work of staff
Using authority in a sensitive, competent way
Creating a clear and focused work environment
Delegate responsibility effectively
Change conditions based on feedback to increase organizational effectiveness
Competently using various forms of power to direct workers Staff Expectations of Administration-Coordinating:
Provide for direct face-to-face contacts among agency staff
Strive for mutual agreement on plans
Use techniques to implement plans
Enhance communication to facilitate efficiency and effectiveness
Provide for lateral communication Controlling:
Reporting: Produce written financial, personnel, and production reports
Budgeting: Detailed financial blueprint of an organization's expenditures for a specific time period or program Evaluating and Accountability:
Establishing organizational objectives
Measuring extent to which they were achieved
Modifying service to increase effectiveness and/or efficiency Steps in Program Evaluation:
1. Determine what is to be evaluated
2. Identify appropriate consumers of the research
3. Solicit staff cooperation
4. Specify program objectives
5. Delineate evaluation objectives
6. Select variables
7. Devise evaluation design
8. Implement the evaluation design
9. Analyze and interpret findings
10. Report and implement results Definition: An administrative activity directed at ensuring that work will be accomplished according to acceptable standards Contract:
Supervision similar to direct practice in that it always involved a contract between supervisor and supervisee
Contract is an explicit agreement on purpose of work Administrative Supervision:
Planning and assigning work
Reviewing and evaluating work
Coordinating, facilitating and sanctioning the work
Serving as a communication channel for the supervisee
Experiencing and interpreting the conflicting demands between the agency and the worker
As "the man in the middle" assessing the talents and limitations of the worker and developing assignments to maximize his/her talents
Managing the authoring relationship between himself/herself and the supervisee as a continuous task
Using the different forms of authority (coercive, positional, expert) Educational Supervision:
Shares ultimate objectives of Administrative supervision
Emphasis on teaching and developing worker's skills to improve performance
Basic educational principles utilized
Mutual determination of learning needs and development of a plan to accomplish these needs Supportive Supervision:
Assist the worker in addressing professional and organizational stresses
Primary goal is to improve the worker's skills and improve service to clients Group Supervision:
Purpose should be made explicit to insure that group's goals are consistent with the more general purposes of supervision: advancing agency goals, professional learning and mutual support
1. Uses supervisor's time effectively and efficiently
2. Draws on resources of group members
3. Provides opportunity of members to share common problems
4. Some workers are more comfortable in group
5. Generates additional types of information for supervision
1. Easier for the individual worker to "hide" or lay back
2. Many supervisors have inadequate group skills
3. Groups may become rebellious and refocus energies on complaints or negative forces
4. Many individual problems may not be addressed
5. Group supervision is usually used to supplement rather than substitute for individual supervision Leadership:
Authoritarian: makes decisions independently
Democratic: seek the participation of others
Laissez faire: allow others to make decisions and may provide little central direction Trait Theories:
Personality traits: flexibility, adaptability, self control, integrity, probity and self confidence
Abilities: judgment, maturity, verbal ability
Social skills: ability convince others, a flair for handling issues diplomatically and general sociability Managerial Grid: good leadership involves equal concern with getting the agency's work done and relationships with staff Situational Leadership: Situation determines whether leader should be more task or more people oriented Contingency Leadership: good leader can asses each situation and act accordingly Highly Rational:
Functions bound by written rules and regulations
Specific sphere of competence
Principle of hierarchy - Table of organization shows hierarchy of responsibility and authority
Specialized training
Exclusion of personal consideration for conduct of office
Staff chosen on basis of competence
Impersonal relationships to insure that random or interpersonal factors are minimized or controlled Advantages:
Specialized skills
Written rules assure greater uniformity and consistency
Promotion based on competence, rather than political criteria
Assures organizational stability and predictability
More effective and efficient Disadvantages:
Limits employee imagination and scope
Rules or means can displace purposes and goals
Neglects human need and discretion
Rigid, hard to respond to changing conditions Goal Displacement:
Organizational processes that tend to undermine clear or stated agency goals Goal Succession:
Occurs when an organization's goals have been met and new issues become the focus Host Agency:
Organization with broad purposes, but which also serves a social work function and hires social workers
Examples: Hospitals and Head Start programs Consultation:
Social agencies tend to use many types of consultation
Usually the consultant brings special knowledge and a different, independent perspective to agency problems, or case situations
Example: A medical consultant may be employed to consider medical causes for emotional difficulties
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