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Exceptional Development: Aphasia and Dyslexia

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Khristine Brylle Mancao

on 10 July 2014

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Transcript of Exceptional Development: Aphasia and Dyslexia

-is defective reading. It represents loss of competency die to brain injury, degeneration, and developmental failure to keep pace with reading instruction. An individual does not have mental defects but he experiences a severe reading disability.
Language disorder refers to any systematic deviation in the way people speak, listen, read, wrote or sign that interferes with their ability to communicate with their peers (Crystal, 1987 as cited by Piper, 1998)
-is the loss of ability to use and understand language. it excludes other language disorders caused by physical conditions such as deafness.

It can be categorized according to the particular area of the brain that is damaged into receptive, expressive, and global aphasias.
Global aphasia
-is characterized by the combined symptoms of expressive and receptive aphasia. Global aphasics have limited comprehension and speech is minimal. This is why this type of aphasia is sometimes referred to as irreversible aphasia syndrome (Piper, 1998).
Receptive aphasia
-it is also referred to as sensory aphasia or "Wernicke's aphasia." It results from a lesion region in the upper back part of the temporal lobe of the brain called Wernicke's area.
-people affected with this type of aphasia manifest no difficulty in articulation or disfluency.
-in fact, their language is characterized by excessive fluency.
Expressive aphasia
-also called
motor aphasia and "Broca's aphasia," after the French neurologist who found that damage to the lower back part of the frontal lobe interferes with speaking ability, is characterized by severe impairment in articulation and speaking ability.
-it is caused by the damage to the lower back part of the frontal lobe resulting in slow and labored speech, defective, individual sounds usually with hesitation in the prosodic features of utterance.
Exceptional Development: Aphasia and Dyslexia
The visual-spatial form of dyslexia corresponds to the following types:
Agnostic Dyslexia
Visual Dyslexia
Strategy-type L
Type S
Posterior Alexia
-initially described the syndrome of posterior alexia in an adult who could write but not read.
-Dejerine was of the opinion that the visual pathways of the left occipital area had been destroyed by the lesion and had cut-off the connection between the right hemisphere visual area and the left hemisphere language area.
Optic alexia
-is seen in adults with occipital lesions where letters similar in configuration are mistaken from another, for example, m and n or k and x.
Another form of alexia, referred to as verbal alexia is also associated with occipital lesions where patients could easily recognize letters but could not grasp whole words. Words have to be put together letter by letter. Optic alexia is accompanied by a gaze disturbance in which patients easily lost their and picked out fragments from different lines (Piper, 1998).
-means inefficient recognition. The term was introduced by Sigmund Freud in 1891 to mean loss of the ability to recognize objects.
Agnostic dyslexia
-after a more generalized agnosia in adults with brain lesions. Patients can read but throw a slow, letter by letter analysis of a word. When there are errors in reading, this results in distortions of words rather than meanings. There is awareness of errors and resulting frustration.
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