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Tibet's conflict with China
Transcript of Tibet's conflict with China
Tibet's other conflicts with China HOW did the international community respond to this event? WHY did this case of nationalism turn into ultranationalism? Chamdo Main Conflict: China's invasion of Tibet
The Battle of Chamdo 1950 The Battle of Chamdo 1950 - The People's Liberation Army (PLA)
- Tibetan soldiers
- The UN (Did not play a huge role because they declined the Dalai Lama's request to intervine)
- The Dalai Lama (Political and religious leader of Tibet) 1951 The Seventeen Point Agreement - An agreement affirming Chinese sovereignty over Tibet
- Tibetan exile sources and international governments consider it invalid (Reluctantly or unwillingly signed)
- The 14th Dalai Lama has denied the agreement on several occasions and claimed that the "17-point agreement" was "thrust upon Tibetan government and people by the threat of arms"
- The Tibetan delegations was pressurized by China to sign the agreement - A military campaign by the People's Republic of China against independent Tibet in Chamdo after months of failed negotiations (Invasion)
- 114 PLA soldiers had been killed or wounded
- Monasteries were destroyed
- The PLA did not attack civilians 1959 Tibetan rebellion - Tibetans riot against Chinese occupation
- 87,000 Tibetans dead 1966-1976 Chinese cultural revolution - A social-political movement that took place in the People's Republic of China
- Historical relics and artifacts were destroyed
- Cultural and religious sites were ransacked
- During this time Tibetan buddhists were prosecuted and approximately 6,000 monasteries were destroyed 1958-1960 The Great Leap forward - An economic and social campaign of the Communist Party of China which aimed to transform the country into a modern communist society through rapid industrialization and collectivization.
- Estimated 45 million deaths in China
- Between 200,000-1,000,000 Tibetans died
- Causes of death were: famine, torturing, beating and suicide 1996 China's "strike hard" campaign in Tibet
- Monks and nuns must also undergo “Patriotic Re-education” classes where they were taught:
* to be loyal to the Communist Party
* to denounce the Dalai Lama
* to accept that Tibet is a part of China
- They were also told to write a ‘self criticizing letter’ denouncing the Dalai Lama.
- Those who refuses can be arrested or denied of their right to practice as monks or nuns and expelled from monasteries result In 1720, Manchu troops took over Tibet and changed their government into one favorable towards the Chinese Government. Tibet attempted to break away from China's control and declare its independence several times. Sometimes it succeeded. Unfortunately, not for long. Boarders between Chinese government and Tibetan Government territory has caused to the Chinese invasion in the1950s. This time using extreme violence, and under the rule of Mao Ze Dong. This lead to the beginning of the Tibet conflict.
China has never accepted Tibet as an independent country. The Chinese wanted to stop Buddhism and foster Communism in Tibet. They also wanted to expand into Tibet for the purpose of taking over the land. With a high population in China, land shortage was a problem that the Chinese hoped to solve. Tibet was the solution. The Tibetans wanted nothing to do with Chinese rule. They wanted their freedom and rights. They wanted the ability to believe in Buddhism or any other religion. The cause of conflict was the result of the Tibetans and the Chinese having very different perspectives on things. After Dalai Lama came back from exile, he led Tibetans to fight for their independence. China believes that their country is superior and that results in expanding control of the Republic of China. Using force to erase Buddhism from Tibetans, and abuses them is an example. The leader Mao Ze Dong demanded that they have to produce grain not only for the cities, but also for foreign exchange export. This resulted in a shortage of grain, which led to millions of deaths. WHY is it considered an ultranationalist conflict? This is considered a ultranationalist conflict, because the Chinese believe that their more superior. They have embraced nationalism to a whole new level, called ultranationalism. China has claimed Tibet as their own. Heavy killing was done for the desire of acting on their value and land claim. In 1965, the United General Assembly was debating what to do about the Chinese takeover of Tibet. Frank Aiken, the Irish ambassador to the UN, argued that Tibet was a nation. Britain and British India- Tibet enjoyed a high degree of autonomy under suzerainty of China. 2002 2008 Tibetan Policy Act of 2002 - Purpose: to "support the aspirations of the Tibetan people to safeguard their distinct identity."
- The Act also stresses the need for religious freedom in Tibet.
- The Act states that the US will:
1. Support economic development, cultural preservation, health care, and education and environmental sustainability for Tibetans inside Tibet.
2. Raise the standard of living for the Tibetan people and assist Tibetans to become self-sufficient. Tibet unrest/uprising day (3.14 riots) - Tibetans rioted and protested against Chinese rule
- one of the witnesses said that monks and students were gunned down in front of the most sacred Buddhist shrine in the region.
- Tanks and armoured vehicles rolled through the streets firing off tear gas in an attempt to suppress the groups of protesters
- Another witness saw more than a hundred Tibetans killed when the Chinese fired at the crowd
- The killings drew widespread international diplomatic criticism and there were demonstrations in a number of cities around the world.
- China's crackdown on protesters and rebels in Tibet has prompted international condemnation and a call for a boycott of the summer's Beijing Olympics The end :)
Thank you for listening Selena
Lillian 1. Who was the leader who came back from exile? 3. Why does China wants Tibet to be part of them? 4. What is the result of the Battle of Chamdo? Questions :) 2. How did Britain respond to the independence of Tibet? 5. What is being taken away from the Tibetan's that caused them to act against China?