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ASL 3050: Final Portfolio

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Heather Badger

on 17 December 2013

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Transcript of ASL 3050: Final Portfolio

Heather Badger
Advanced American Sign Language
Linguistics has been defined as the study of language and its structure, including the study of morphology, syntax, phonetics, and semantics. This portfolio's purpose is to take a more profound look at American Sign Language. Each assignment is accompanied with a summary of why it is important and how it relates with that assignment in regards to linguistics. My hope is that as you assess this portfolio, you will gain a deeper understanding of ASL.
Purpose
1.
Word

Handshape

a.
Girl

A handshape
b.
Elevator

left hand- Flat fingers together: Right hand-E handshape
c.
Spaghetti

I handshape
d.
Awkward

3 handshape
e.
Travel

Bent 2 handshape or double x handshape
f.
Play

Y handshape
g.
Lecture

5 handshape
h.
Preach

9 handshape or F handshape
i.
People

P handshape
j.
Give

Flat O handshape
k.
Math

M handshape
l.
Pity

5 handshape
m.
Mother

5 handshape
n.
Always

1 handshape
o.
Plate (dish)

Bent L handshape
p.
Lobster

2 handshape
q.
Should

X handshape
r.
Marry

C handshape

Assignment 2
1.
Same Handshape

Same Movement

Same Location

a. Responsibility:
Good

“pow”

Boss

b. Forget:
Best

Best

Boy
c. Cute:
“pow”

Red

Red
d. Enjoy:
Please

Please

Please
e. Bicycle:
Abuse

Sign

Sign

f. Ugly:
Dry

Summer

Mustache

g. Best:
Forget

Forget

Jewish
h. Worse:
Take care o
f
Contradict

Contradict
j. Discuss:
Example

Argue

Debt
i. Monkey:
Salad

Salad/smell

Chicken






Assignment 1
ASL 3050: Final Portfolio
2. Words Difference

a. Summer/Dry: Location
b. Red/Cute: Handshape
c. Short/Train: Movement
d. Sit/Chair: Movement

3. Words Common

a. Summer/Dry: Handshape and Movement
b. Red/Cute: Location and Movement
c. Short/Train: Handshape and Location
d. Sit/Chair: Location and Handshape

4. Signs that need a nonmanual signal with them are:
Who, what, where, when, why, how
American Sign Language is made up of five basic parts: Handshape, Movement, Location, Orientation, and Nonmanual markers.

Some signs share similar or have the same handshapes, movements, locations, orientations, and nonmanual markers as other signs that may mean something very different. The above assignment shows these similarities and differences as examples.

Nonmanual markers are shown through facial expressions and body language. Nonmanual markers can give meaning, emphasis, or change a sign entirely.
2.
Word

Location

a.
Play

Torso
b.
Not

Chin
c.
Feel

Chest
d.
Doctor

Wrist
e.
Face

Face
f.
Yesterday

Cheek
g.
Hospital

Upper arm
h.
Time

Wrist
i.
Strict

Nose
j.
Broke (no money)

Neck
k.
Punish

Elbow
l.
Duty

Shoulder

3.
Word

Movement

a.
Oppress

Downward
b.
Busy

Side to side
c.
Key, lock

Twist
d.
Boil

Wiggling fingers
e.
Related

Away from body
f.
Maybe

Up and down
g.
Sell

Away from body
h.
Yes

Up and down
i.
Coffee

Circle
j.
Miss

Left
k.
Travel

Away from body
l.
Commute

Side to side
m.
Clear

Right and left
n.
Approach

Left
o.
Divide

Right and Left
p.
Die

Twist
q.
Fascinating

Away from body
r.
Contact

Right and Left

There are many handshapes that are and can be used to start the creation of a sign. Some of the basic handshapes are A,O,C,G,1,B,and S.

Each sign also takes place at a different location of the signers body. Signs can be done near your forehead, shoulder, arms, face, hands, chest, open space in front of or at the side of you, and many other various places.

Many signs also include movements. Signs can be moved away from the body, toward the body, can be rotated, up and down, side to side, or other various ways.

When you put the handshape, location and movement together, you have created a sign.


Assignment 3
William C. Stokoe created the first written system to describe individual signs. He developed symbols that would represent the handshape,location, and movement of each sign.
Assignment 4
Stokoe's work was later added onto by LIddell and Johnson. They designed a system that would add explain more than handshape, location, and movement. They would also help explain who the sign would change with movement. Movement was represented with an (M), holds with an (H), and Start with an (X).
Assignment 5
Watch “The Snowmobile” on the DVD. Find two examples of assimilation. For each example, write down the glosses and the Movement-Hold notation for both signs. Describe where the assimilation occurs and identify whether it is handshape assimilation, location assimilation, orientation assimilation etc.

1. One example of assimilation in the movie can be found when the storyteller signs
“parents” and then “family”. (about 1:50) This is an example of location assimilation. She signs parents and then leaves her hands up by her face to sign family instead of moving them down in front of her chest where the sign typically takes place.

ARRIVE HOUSE AREA MY PARENTS FAMILY WRONG HAPPEN?


Basic Sign: Parents Family
H M H H M H
Movement epenthesis: H M H M X M H
Hold Reduction: H M X M X M H


2. Another example of assimilation in the movie can be found when the storyteller signs “how” and then “lift”. (about 2:10) This is an example of handshape assimilation. She signs the first part of “how” and then leads it straight into the sign “lift” without actually finishing the sign “how”.

DISCUSS #DO-DO SNOWMOBILE CL 3 (SHOW SNOWMOBILE SINK DOWN) #DO-DO HOW LIFT DISCUSS

Basic Sign: How Lift
H M H H M H
Movement epenthesis: H M H M X M H
Hold Reduction: H M X M X M H

Assimilation occurs when one sign takes on characteristics of a sign near it, usually the on just before it or after it. Many signs the handshape of one sign will change to be closer to the handshape of the sign directly before or after it.
Assignment 6
1. List two or more examples of bound inflectional morphemes in English or another spoken language that you know and explain why they are inflectional.

1. Bears
2. Trees
Both of these words are inflectional because they are simply nouns with an ‘s’ added to the end. Adding the ‘s’ makes them plural but they remain as nouns. No new unit is created.
1. Runs
2. Kicks
Both of these words are inflectional because they are simply verbs with an ‘s’ added to the end. Adding the ‘s’ makes the verbs “third person” but they are still verbs. No new unit is created.

2. List two or more examples of bound derivational morphemes in English or another spoken language that you know and explain why they are derivational.

1. Teacher
2. Unintentional
These words are derivational because they have a prefix/suffix added to them to make them a new word (have a different meaning). “Teach” can stand alone as a word but adding the suffix “er” to the end gives it a different meaning. “Intentional” can stand alone as a word but adding the prefix “un” the word comes to mean something different.

Morphology is the study of the smallest meaningful unit in language and of how those meaningful units are used to build new words or signs. Derivational morphology is the process of making new units for the language. Inflectional morphology is different from derivational morphology. It is the process of adding grammatical information to units that already exist. They do not result in the creation of a new unit.
Assignment 7
1. On the DVD, “The Snowmobile” and “Applause for Eyes to See” both have examples of nouns that have related verbs in ASL and verbs that have related nouns. Find one example of each, as follows:
a. Noun in a story: Name (Found on “Applause for the Eyes to See”)
b. Related ASL Verb: Call
c. Verb in a story: Sit (Found on “Applause for the Eyes to See”)
d. Related ASL noun: Chair

2. List three examples of noun-verb pairs not included in this unit:
a: Paper-School
b: Garden-Grow
c: Happy-Please

3. Which of the following sets are noun-verb pairs in ASL and which have unrelated signs for the noun and the verb?
a. Put-in-jail Jail Unrelated Signs
b. Put-on-earring Earring Noun-Verb Pair
c. Shoot-gun Gun Noun-Verb Pair
d. Mail-letter Letter Unrelated Signs
e. Drive-car Car Noun-Verb Pair

Assignment 8
2. List at least four other compounds in which the first sign is either THINK or MIND.
a. Think-Same—to agree with
b. Think-Marry—believe
c. Think- Judge—decide
d. Think-Touch—to be obsessed with

3. Watch “The Snowmobile” on the DVD. Find three compounds used in the story. Write down which two signs form each compound and its English translation.
a. Boy-Same—brother
b. Think-Judge—decide
c. Old-Twelve—twelve years old

Assignment 10
1. Think about and briefly describe how you would sign the following signs.
a. Height:
Active hand in u-shape touch right top of head. Move active hand in neutral space and sign numbers with a slight right movement with palm facing signer.
b. First, Second, Third Place
Active hand with appropriate number with palm facing signer (fingers facing left) and slight movement to right.
c. TV channel
Active hand fingerspells “channel” and then appropriate number
d. Period of time (6-9 pm)
Active hand at appropriate number then change to a one finger (palm facing signer and fingers facing left) with slight move to the right. Then change to next appropriate number.
e. Dollar amount ($1 or $2)
Active hand with appropriate number with a slight twist toward signer.
f. Numbers on a shirt
Active hand on shirt (where number is) with appropriate number. If more than one number, active hand starts on the right side of body and moves left with each number. (or down, depending on where numbers are)
g. Sports scores (9-11)
Active hand next to chest showing number appropriate with score of ‘your’ team. Passive hand on side of body or away from you with appropriate score of other team.

2. “The Snowmobile” on the DVD contains three examples of signs involving numbers. Answer the following questions about these signs.
a. The three signs are:
1. 12 years old
2. 7 years old
3. “1 house in North Michigan”
b. What area do the signs refer to (age, time, etc.)
1. age
2. age
3. number of objects
c. Are the signs examples of numeral incorporation?
1. Yes
2. Yes
3. No

Assignment 11
1. Watch the Kansas and Louisiana conversations and the “Brotherhood,” and “House” stories on the DVD and see how many sentence types you can identify. You should be able to find examples of declaratives, topicalizations, negations, and questions. Gloss one example of each.

a. Declarative:
I DEAF GROW UP DEAF


b. Topicalization: “Remember when you and your brother were talking to each other”
REMEMBER YOU BROTHER (two of you) SIT ACROSS FROM EACH OTHER CHAT.


c. Negation: “We didn’t see him”
TWO OF US SEE HIM (head shake “no”)


d. Question: “You know I’m deaf right”
YOU DON’T KNOW ME DEAF DON’T KNOW (Q)

Assignment 12
1. Watch the Kansas and Louisiana conversations on the DVD. Gloss two sentences from each conversation and explain how you know that they are sentences. For example, what is it about the signs and the non-manual features that tells you where a sentence begins and ends?

Kansas conversation:

Twenty deaf die, twenty? (eyebrows down) His facial expressions show that he is asking for her to clarify.

Pro 2 deaf arrive deaf? Clearly a question (known by facial expressions)

Louisiana Conversation:

Why Scare? Eyebrows down shows it was a question

Nice time.(nd) The nod shows where the sentence ends.
The End
Assignment 13
Assignment 14
Assignment 15
Assignment 16
Assignment 17
Assignment 18
Assignment 19
Assignment 20
1. Using the descriptions of aspect in the text, find as many examples as you can from everyday conversations of verb and adjective predicates that can have aspect inflection.
a. Continually
Read continually, work continually, annoy continually, busy continually.
b. Regularly
Sleep regularly, go to school regularly, check e-mail regularly
c. For-a-prolonged-period
Sit for a prolonged period, read for a prolonged period, run for a prolonged period, sleep for a prolonged period.
d. Over-and-over
Look over and over again, study over and over again, drive over and over again.
e. In-a-hurry
Eat in a hurry, walk in a hurry, read in a hurry, write in a hurry

3. In the ASL PAH! stories on the DVD, you will find several examples of verbs with aspect inflections. Identify these verbs and state the meaning of their aspectual inflections.
a. ADD++ SELF ESTEEM- Her self esteem was built up when she became part of the Deaf community and learned about how Deaf people can be successful.
b. FOCUS- Shows how focused he was on learning more about deaf culture
c. DIFFERENT- Shows how different hearing and Deaf culture are

1. Watch the stories “Tobacco” and “Oklahoma City Bombing” on the DVD. Find six examples of plain verbs.
1. Writing
2. Eat
3. Know
4. Feel
5. Open-window
6. Heard
7. Teach
8. Cry

2. Find six examples of indicating verbs from the same stories. Provide an English translation of the sentence each verb appears in.
1. SHOW-ME- The teacher asked all the students to show what was in their mouth.
2. SPIT- He spit his gum out of the open window
3. LOOK- Jack and the teacher looked at each other: The students looked around at each other.
4. ENTER- Dr. Bill entered the room.
5. POINT- He pointed to the window.
6. WRITE- He wrote on the board.

1. Find examples of ASL signs that illustrate the difference between denotation and connotation.
Denotation: The “dictionary” definition of a word. Very literal
Food: Something you put in your mouth to eat and give you energy
Deaf: Someone’s audiological status
Child: A young person
Hot: A high temperature
Connotation:
Eat: The act of putting food in your mouth (can be done slow, fast, show how it tastes or how hungry you are by the signs connotation)
Deaf: Proud member of Deaf community (shown with puffed cheek and arcing 1 hand)
Child: Can show age/height or can mean brat or immature depending on connotation.
Hot: Can show temperature (from boiling hot to warm)


2. Find additional examples in ASL of the following meaning relationships:
a. Hyponymy
Color
Sign Language
b. Part/whole relationships
Hand/arm
Phonology/linguistics
c. Synonymy
Deaf (signed both ways)
Run (jog, run for office, water run, nose run)
Bed, car, busy (signs for those and lexicalized fingerspelling)
d. Antonymy
Large/small
Tall/short
VW bug/limo
Dead/half dead
e. Converseness
Wife/husband
Teacher/student
Aunt/niece
f. Metaphor
Appear/disappear
Tired, depressed/Thrilled, happy
Feel, excited, depress, pity, sensitive, sick
Not, deny, refuse, blame, and suffer
2. Find an example of an ASL sentence that can have different meanings depending on the context and explain what the different contexts are and what the different meanings of the sentence are.
“HOME PRO”
-Can be a yes-no questions with the function of requesting information (if simply asking for information)
-May be a request for a ride home, even though there is no mention of a ride
-May be a complaint by a boss to an employee who is leaving too early

1. Find and list as many examples as you can of signs that vary from region to region. Are the signs completely different or are they basically the same, with variation only in handshape or location or palm orientation? Do you see any signs in the Kansas and Louisiana conversations or in the ASL PAH! stories that are different from the signs you use?
-About- Variation in handshape
-Arrest- Some handshape variation and some different signs
-Fix- Different signs
-Football- Sign variation
-Friday- Different signs
I didn’t recognize any signs that I haven’t seen used in the Kansas and Louisana conversations or in the ASL Pah! stories.

2. Find and list examples of signs that older and younger people use differently and discuss the differences you see. One area in which you might find differences are in the signs for countries.

Computer
- Before it was showing the 2 reels the computer had and now it is off the arm or forehead.
Telephone- Before it showed the dial on the phone how you used to use it and now it simple shows a phone up to your ear or cell phone sign.

Home-
Before it was sign eat/sleep and now it has been condensed

Brother/sister-
Before it seems to be more of the signs girl or boy/same now it seems to be more of half the sign of boy or girl/right

China/japan/Russia
- Now more “politically correct”


4. Watch a conversation from the Kansas or Louisiana segments of the DVD. Identify what signers do to indicate they want to take the floor. Identify the ways a signer keeps the floor when someone else attempts to interrupt.

In the Kansas conversation segment of the DVD, I noticed different ways the signers indicate that they want to take the floor. The most common way is to wave to get the attention of the person signing to let them know they would like a turn. Another way I saw frequently was for the person who wanted a turn to repeat the last thing the one signing had just said. This made the signer aware of the person who wanted to share. Another way was to ask for clarification. Once clarification was asked, it allows for the floor to be opened up for that person to start signing what they wanted to say.
There are three main things I noticed when a signer wants to keep the floor when someone else attempts to interrupt. One way is for the signer to stop having eye contact with the person wanting to interrupt or for them to look down or away for a moment. Another way I noticed was it seemed as if the signer would start to sign faster almost as if to leave no pauses for someone to interrupt. The last way I noticed was if they were interrupted but wanted to make it clear they were not finished, they left their hands up in their signing box ready to finish what they were trying to say.

4. Watch a conversation from the Kansas or Louisiana segments of the DVD. Identify what signers do to indicate they want to take the floor. Identify the ways a signer keeps the floor when someone else attempts to interrupt.

In the Kansas conversation segment of the DVD, I noticed different ways the signers indicate that they want to take the floor. The most common way is to wave to get the attention of the person signing to let them know they would like a turn. Another way I saw frequently was for the person who wanted a turn to repeat the last thing the one signing had just said. This made the signer aware of the person who wanted to share. Another way was to ask for clarification. Once clarification was asked, it allows for the floor to be opened up for that person to start signing what they wanted to say.

There are three main things I noticed when a signer wants to keep the floor when someone else attempts to interrupt. One way is for the signer to stop having eye contact with the person wanting to interrupt or for them to look down or away for a moment. Another way I noticed was it seemed as if the signer would start to sign faster almost as if to leave no pauses for someone to interrupt. The last way I noticed was if they were interrupted but wanted to make it clear they were not finished, they left their hands up in their signing box ready to finish what they were trying to say.

Assignment 9
2. Look at ASL PAH! Stories on the DVD and find four examples of lexicalized fingerspelling. Explain what changes have taken place in terms of the eight changes discussed in this unit: deletion/addition, location, handshape, movement, orientation, reduplication, second hand, and grammatical information. Remember that lexicalized fingerspelling is represented with the pound sign (#).
#no-reduplication
#off- movement, deletion
#but- handshape, movement
#off-Location, movement
#snack- location, deletion
#what- movement, deletion, orientation
#if- location, movement

Some signs can actually be extremely similar especially when one is a noun and one is a verb. To change some nouns into verbs all that is needed is repetitive movement or action. For example the sign for "chair" and "sit" are the same other than the movement for "chair" is the sign for "sit" repeated.
Compounds in ASL are formed much like they are in English. Three morphological rules are used to create compounds in ASL. 1- The first contact rule. 2- The single sequence rule. 3- The weak hand anticipation rule. The result of compounding two words is a new meaning being created. Compound formation is a rule-governed process.
A fingerspelled alphabet is commonly used in ASL. Some signs are made up by this fingerspelled alphabet. When signs are created by letters, many times some letters you would write in the word are missing or when spelling the word your hand will change natural orientation. Signs have been created out of letters by simply adding movement and other similar things.
Numbers can be combined with different signs to add meaning and convenience. This is done when you add a number into the handshape or movement of the original sign. Numbers are commonly added to represent age, time, weeks, days, and months.
There are many different sentence types in ASL. Some of these are declaratives, topicalizations, negations, and questions. Many of these sentence types can be distinguished by non-manual markers such as facial expressions.

ASL is not a written language. Because of this when ASL needs to be written we do it in a form called "glossing."
ASL is not a written language. Because of this when ASL needs to be written we do it in a form called "glossing." This is done when English words are written in ASL grammar including lines that represent facial expressions or other non-manual markers.
In ASL there are two different types of verbs. They are plain verbs or indicating verbs. Plain verbs are always in the same location and cannot be altered without changing the meaning of the sign. Indicating verbs are more dynamic. They move away or towards you, specific people, objects, or other various locations.
ASL has a way of expressing time and aspect. Temporal aspect changes the action of a predicate. By changing the aspect or inflection you can show something that is continuous, regular, prolonged, over and over again, or in a hurry. Non-manual markers such as circular motions, long motions, quick motions, repeated motions and others are how these are shown.
ASL sentences can be understood in two ways: Denotation or connotation. Denotation is the literal meaning of the word or the "dictionary definition." Connotation is the social affect on the meaning of a word or a sentence.
The word order in an ASL sentence can change the meaning of a sentence dramatically. For example if you say "cat chase dog" it means "the cat chases the dog." If you change the words around and say "dog chase cat" it means "the dog chases the cat."
Topicalization occurs when information is expressed at the beginning of the sentence to draw specific attention to it or set it up as prominent, and it results in an adjustment to the basic word order. Often the thing stressed at the beginning names what the rest of the sentence will be about.
There are many variations (or accents) of ASL all over America. This is the result of many different things. Some communities develop slightly different signs than the majority of communities, slang or made of signs vary, different races sign differently, and some signs have simply changed over time because of things like new technology or simply because of laziness.
There are many ways in which to show a signer that you would like a turn to share. The previous assignment thoroughly explains how to do that in an appropriate way.
ASL is not used only for everyday communication. There are many artistic forms such as storytelling, percussion signing, drama, comedy, poetry, and film. These forms of ASL have played an iportant role in the transmission of culture and history from generation to generation of Deaf people. Storytelling, a popular art form among Deaf people, demonstrates a complex structure that includes the extensive use of formulaic elements. Storytelling is a fundamental part of Deaf culture.
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