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Transcript of Sports Psychology
GROUP DYNAMICS OF PERFORMANCE
MENTAL PREPARATION FOR PHYSICAL ACTIVITY
Improved Psychological State
SOCIAL FACILITATION AND INHIBITION
SELF EFFICACY AND SELF CONFIDENCE
'The sum of an individuals characteristics that make him/her unique
Eyskenck belives that a personlity is born and that it lies across two different dimensions:
Extrovert - Introvert
Stable - Unstable
suggests that behaviour is predictable
we will behave the smame in all situations
does not consider how the environment may shape personality
does not explain why we may react differently when in the same situation e.g. to a bad tackle ina friendly or cup final
Narrow Band is a trait approach, and stats that personality is innate and of two types. Either:
SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY
Behaviour is learned - Not genetically programmed
Social Learning = Observation + Reinforcement
learning is facilitated when:
norms/values of culture
role model is authorative
Does not explain why we react differently to norms: e.g. join in with racist chanting or biting Ivanovic, norms/trait over rules?
Behaviour is a function of personality and the environment
LEARNED BEHAVIOURS (PARENTS)
DYNAMIC AND CHANGEABLE
Behaviour is unpredictable
Typical responses emerge base don the environment
Explains why sports player behaviour may change when placed in a sporting situation
An individuals predisposition to belive, feel and act towards and attitude object
Can originate from:
When the Triadic Model is consistent (i.e. all components are negative - attitude will be nagative)
To change this we must create dissonance (confilct) between the attitude components i.e:
Cognitive = Positive
Negative = Negative
Behavioural = Negative
Can be achieved through......
Education by significant other
aggression is innate and instinctive
caused by survival of the species
sport releases built up aggression, catharsis
FRUSTRATION AGGRESSION HYPOTHESIS
FRUSTRATION AGGRESSION THEORY
Aggression caused by frustration the person being blocked in the achievement of a goal this causes a drive towards the source of frustration
frustration will increase the likelyhood of aggression
SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY
Aggression is learned
By observation of other’s behaviour
then imitation of this aggressive behaviour this is then reinforced by social acceptance of the behaviour
Frustration causes anger and arousal
This creates a readiness for aggression
Which can be initiated by an incident during the performance (the cue)
This is a learned response
Aggression will only occur if learned cue or trigger is present
AGGRESSIVE CUE HYPOTHESIS
Example : a player sees a colleague fouled then decides to join in or agressive object will cause aggressive act.
However: why does this not always happen?
E.G. In some sports more than others? from game to game...not fight in cup final as they do not want to get sent off!
Enjoys 50:50 challenges
Failure = success
Will train harder next time
Low probibility of success
High incentive value
Low task persistance
Attributes failure internally
High probibility of success
Low incentive vaule
To generate NACH:
Ensure success - achievable goals
Attribute success to internal factors (ability)
Blame failure on external reasons (luck)
Self serving Bias
Drive Theory of Social facilitation
The response most likely to occur
Pure presence of others
Stage of Learning Evaluation?
Innate reaction (Supports)
Inhibits learning of complex skills
Facilitates performance of overlearned skills
Audience and co-actors have same effect
McCullage In contrast:
Co-actors facilitated learning
Mere presence is not enough
Arousal only increased if the audience was perceived to be evaluating them.
Some performers may need evaluation to help them get activated (Aroused). It can therefore be facilitating (Phase of Learning evaluation)
The Proximity Effect
Location is important
Effects are more intense the closer they are
Can still be positive or negative (Evaluation)
The Home Advantage Effect
Nevill & Cann:
Home crowds have a positive influence
The bigger the crowd the stronger the influence
Narrow focus on to relevant cues
Block out audience
Practice in front of an audience
Athletes become accustomed
to spectator effects
Making sure the dominant response is positive
Groove and over-learn skills so that
the increase in arousal that leads to
the dominant response occurring more
often produces a positive result.
Positive self talk
Block out negative thoughts
possibly induced by audience presence
Goal setting influences performance in four ways:
(Lock & Latham, 1990)
1 - Directs attention on to the task
2 - Increases effort applied
3 - Improves persistence when task gets hard
4 - Motivation to learn and apply different approaches is increased
In order for goal setting to be effective the following principles need to be applied:
S - Specific - Goals should relate to the task
M - Measurable - Goals should be evaluated and measured.
A - Accepted - Agreed by coach and performer
R - Realistic - Challenging but attainable
T - Timed - Time limit set
E - Exciting - Excitement is generated when an accepted goal provides a challenge
R - Recorded - Achievement or progress towards a target should be recorded.
Time Based Goals:
Activity Based Goals:
- Long Term Goals
- Ultimate aim
- Extended time period to complete
- However LTGs can be daunting if set on their own
- LTGs on their own do not improve performance
- Short Term Goals
- Gives immediate success
- Set at performers current ability level
- Become progressively more difficult.
- Useful in the attainment of LTGs
- Medium Term Goals
- Occur in the STG sequence
- Endorse the effectiveness of STGs
- Product Goals (Outcome)
- Defeating other opponents
- Winning outcomes
- End result
- Externally controlled
- Process Goals
- Improving techniques for a better performance
- Improving technique in order to improve performance
- Performance Goals
- Based against a previous performance
- Striving for a personal best
TYPES OF GOALS
Self Efficacy = Specific type of self confidence
It is unstable and therefore changeable
Approach behaviour/Seeks challenges/persevere with tasks
High Self Efficacy =
Low Self Efficacy =
Avoidance behaviour/Gives up easily/Becomes anxious when things get difficult
Attribute success to internal factors =
elevates confidence and increased expectation to succeed
Attribute failure to internal factors =
reduces confidence and expectation of success = learned helplessness.
Cause avoidance behavior
Make performer less confident
Reduce Self efficacy
A decrease in SC
An increase in SC
Increase Self efficacy
Make performer more confident
Facilitate approach behavior
is determined by the interaction of three factors
= directly determines the quality of the skill that is to be performed
3 - The performers competitive orientation
2 - The objective sports situation
1 - SC
The objective sport situation
Trait sports confidence
The type of skill to be performed
The extent to which an individual is prepared to compete
of the specific skill
Vealeys Model of
Cue Utilisation - performers ability to focus on the correct cues based on arousal.
Arousal low =
Widening of the perceptual field
too much irrelevant information
Information processing slows
Decision making is impeded.
Perceptual field narrow
Focus on too few stimuli
Relevant cues missed
Information processing restricted
Decision making impeded
State of panic
Know as hypervigilance.
Perceptual field narrows to ideal width
Allowing only the most important cue to be attended to
selective attention is fully operational
concentration is maximised
known as cue utilisation
Team = 3 or more individuals who:
interact with each other
share a common goal
have mutual dependency
share identity (kit?)
Actual productivity =
potential productivity - losses due to faulty group processes
Lack of coordination (cliques & sub groups) &
Groups can get too large.
Larger groups can be more productive
The Ringlemann Effect
The Ringlemann Effect suggests that:
As group size increases, the effort and contribution of each individual decreases.
Individuals display decreased motivation & effort.
Expect others to do the work.
Skills not interwoven into unity.
Tactical failings/lack of teamwork.
Interactive teams suffer more from this.
FAULTY GROUP PROCESSES
The loss of individual effort in a group due to a decrease in individual motivation.
Performers do not show their true potential.
May be role conflict or a lack of understanding of role.
Lack of fitness.
Rely on others to do well.
May feel their efforts will go unnoticed.
Individual effort is not measured effectively.
They are able to hide within group.
The task may lack meaning for the individual.
Social Loafing - Causes
An individuals level of activation and alertness in preparation for performance.
Introvert = less arousal for optimal performance
Extrovert = more arousal for optimal performance
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