Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Make your likes visible on Facebook?

Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

No, thanks

Sports Psychology

No description
by

Darren Brookfield

on 13 October 2014

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of Sports Psychology

Individual aspects of performance that influence young peoples participation and aspiration
EXAM PREPARATION
GROUP DYNAMICS OF PERFORMANCE
MENTAL PREPARATION FOR PHYSICAL ACTIVITY
Sports Psychology
Improved Psychological State
Improved Performance
PERSONALITY
ATTITUDE
ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION
ATTRIBUTION THEORY
AGGRESSION
GROUP PERFORMANCE
LEADERSHIP
SOCIAL FACILITATION AND INHIBITION
GOAL SETTING
SELF EFFICACY AND SELF CONFIDENCE
ATTENTIONAL CONTROL
EMOTIONAL CONTROL
'The sum of an individuals characteristics that make him/her unique
TRAIT APPROACH
Personality is:
Genetically determined
Stable
Enduring
EYSENCK'S MODEL
Eyskenck belives that a personlity is born and that it lies across two different dimensions:

Extrovert - Introvert
Stable - Unstable
CRITICAL EVALUATION
suggests that behaviour is predictable
we will behave the smame in all situations
does not consider how the environment may shape personality
does not explain why we may react differently when in the same situation e.g. to a bad tackle ina friendly or cup final
NARROW BAND
Narrow Band is a trait approach, and stats that personality is innate and of two types. Either:

SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY
Behaviour is learned - Not genetically programmed
Social Learning = Observation + Reinforcement
learning is facilitated when:
significant other
norms/values of culture
role model is authorative
same gender
reinforcement
Does not explain why we react differently to norms: e.g. join in with racist chanting or biting Ivanovic, norms/trait over rules?
INTERACTIONIST THEORY
Behaviour is a function of personality and the environment
TRUE-SELF
LEARNED BEHAVIOURS (PARENTS)
DYNAMIC AND CHANGEABLE
Behaviour is unpredictable
Typical responses emerge base don the environment
Explains why sports player behaviour may change when placed in a sporting situation
An individuals predisposition to belive, feel and act towards and attitude object
Can originate from:

Past experience
Socialisation
The Media
Culture
Reinforcement
CHANGING ATTITUDES
COGNITIVE DISSONANCE
When the Triadic Model is consistent (i.e. all components are negative - attitude will be nagative)

To change this we must create dissonance (confilct) between the attitude components i.e:
Cognitive = Positive
Negative = Negative
Behavioural = Negative
Can be achieved through......
Education by significant other
(cognitive)
Positive experience
(Behavioural)
Persuasive communication
(affective)
TRAIT/INSTINCT THEORY
INSTINCT THEORY
aggression is innate and instinctive
caused by survival of the species
sport releases built up aggression, catharsis
FRUSTRATION AGGRESSION HYPOTHESIS
FRUSTRATION AGGRESSION THEORY
Aggression caused by frustration the person being blocked in the achievement of a goal this causes a drive towards the source of frustration
frustration will increase the likelyhood of aggression
SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY
Aggression is learned
By observation of other’s behaviour
then imitation of this aggressive behaviour this is then reinforced by social acceptance of the behaviour
Frustration causes anger and arousal
This creates a readiness for aggression
Which can be initiated by an incident during the performance (the cue)
This is a learned response
Aggression will only occur if learned cue or trigger is present
AGGRESSIVE CUE HYPOTHESIS
Example : a player sees a colleague fouled then decides to join in or agressive object will cause aggressive act.
However: why does this not always happen?
E.G. In some sports more than others? from game to game...not fight in cup final as they do not want to get sent off!
NACH
Approach behaviours
Enjoys 50:50 challenges
Failure = success
Will train harder next time
Low probibility of success
High incentive value
NAF
Avoidance behaviours
Dislikes challenges
Low task persistance
Attributes failure internally
High probibility of success
Low incentive vaule
To generate NACH:

Ensure success - achievable goals
Improve confidence
Attribute success to internal factors (ability)
Blame failure on external reasons (luck)
Attribution retraining
Self serving Bias
Learned helplessness
Drive Theory of Social facilitation
Dominant Response:
The response most likely to occur
Pure presence of others
Stage of Learning Evaluation?
Innate reaction (Supports)
Inhibits learning of complex skills
Facilitates performance of overlearned skills
Zajonc:
Audience and co-actors have same effect

McCullage In contrast:
Co-actors facilitated learning
Audience inhibited

Evaluation Apprehension
Cottrell disagreed:
Mere presence is not enough
Arousal only increased if the audience was perceived to be evaluating them.
Some performers may need evaluation to help them get activated (Aroused). It can therefore be facilitating (Phase of Learning evaluation)
The Proximity Effect
Schwartz:
Location is important
Effects are more intense the closer they are
Can still be positive or negative (Evaluation)
The Home Advantage Effect
Nevill & Cann:
Home crowds have a positive influence
The bigger the crowd the stronger the influence
Selective Attention
Narrow focus on to relevant cues
Mental Rehearsal
Enhance concentration
Block out audience
Practice in front of an audience
Athletes become accustomed
to spectator effects
Making sure the dominant response is positive
Groove and over-learn skills so that
the increase in arousal that leads to
the dominant response occurring more
often produces a positive result.
Positive self talk
Block out negative thoughts
possibly induced by audience presence
Goal setting influences performance in four ways:
(Lock & Latham, 1990)

1 - Directs attention on to the task
2 - Increases effort applied
3 - Improves persistence when task gets hard
4 - Motivation to learn and apply different approaches is increased
In order for goal setting to be effective the following principles need to be applied:

SMARTER!!!!!!

S - Specific - Goals should relate to the task
M - Measurable - Goals should be evaluated and measured.
A - Accepted - Agreed by coach and performer
R - Realistic - Challenging but attainable
T - Timed - Time limit set
E - Exciting - Excitement is generated when an accepted goal provides a challenge
R - Recorded - Achievement or progress towards a target should be recorded.
Time Based Goals:
Activity Based Goals:
- Long Term Goals
- Ultimate aim
- Extended time period to complete
- However LTGs can be daunting if set on their own
(Causing Anxiety)
- LTGs on their own do not improve performance

- Short Term Goals
- Gives immediate success
- Set at performers current ability level
- Become progressively more difficult.
- Useful in the attainment of LTGs


- Medium Term Goals
- Occur in the STG sequence
- Endorse the effectiveness of STGs
- Product Goals (Outcome)
- Defeating other opponents
- Winning outcomes
- End result
- Externally controlled
- Process Goals
- Improving techniques for a better performance
- Improving technique in order to improve performance
- Performance Goals
- Based against a previous performance
- Striving for a personal best
TYPES OF GOALS
Performance
Accomplishments
Vicarious
Experiences
Verbal
Persuasion
Control of
Arousal
Efficacy
Expectations
Athletic
Performance
Self Efficacy = Specific type of self confidence

It is unstable and therefore changeable
Approach behaviour/Seeks challenges/persevere with tasks
High Self Efficacy =
Low Self Efficacy =
Avoidance behaviour/Gives up easily/Becomes anxious when things get difficult
Attribute success to internal factors =
elevates confidence and increased expectation to succeed
Attribute failure to internal factors =
reduces confidence and expectation of success = learned helplessness.
Self Efficacy
Cause avoidance behavior
Make performer less confident
Reduce Self efficacy
Depress SC
state
A decrease in SC
trait
and
competitiveness will:
An increase in SC
trait
and
competitiveness will:
Elevate SC
state
Increase Self efficacy
Make performer more confident
Facilitate approach behavior
SC
state
is determined by the interaction of three factors
SC
State
= directly determines the quality of the skill that is to be performed
3 - The performers competitive orientation
2 - The objective sports situation
1 - SC
trait
The objective sport situation
State
sports confidence
Competitive orientation
Trait sports confidence
The type of skill to be performed
The extent to which an individual is prepared to compete
The objective
sport situation
State
sports
confidence
Competitive
orientation
Trait
sports
confidence
Behavioural Response
(Performance)
Subjective outcome
of the specific skill
Vealeys Model of
Sport Confidence
Cue Utilisation - performers ability to focus on the correct cues based on arousal.
Low Arousal
Arousal low =
Widening of the perceptual field
too much irrelevant information
Information processing slows
Information overload
Decision making is impeded.

Perceptual field narrow
Focus on too few stimuli
Relevant cues missed
Information processing restricted
Decision making impeded
State of panic
Know as hypervigilance.
Over Arousal
OPTIMAL!
Perceptual field narrows to ideal width
Allowing only the most important cue to be attended to
selective attention is fully operational
concentration is maximised
known as cue utilisation
Team = 3 or more individuals who:
interact with each other
share a common goal
have mutual dependency
share identity (kit?)
Actual productivity =
potential productivity - losses due to faulty group processes
STEINER
REASON:
Lack of coordination (cliques & sub groups) &
motivational losses.

Groups can get too large.
BUT

Larger groups can be more productive
The Ringlemann Effect

The Ringlemann Effect suggests that:

As group size increases, the effort and contribution of each individual decreases.

MOTIVATION FACTORS

Individuals display decreased motivation & effort.


Expect others to do the work.


Social Loafing.



COORDINATION FACTORS

Skills not interwoven into unity.

Tactical failings/lack of teamwork.

Interactive teams suffer more from this.

Ringlemann Effect.


FAULTY GROUP PROCESSES
The loss of individual effort in a group due to a decrease in individual motivation.

Performers do not show their true potential.

Social Loafing

May be role conflict or a lack of understanding of role.

Lack of fitness.

Rely on others to do well.

May feel their efforts will go unnoticed.

Individual effort is not measured effectively.

They are able to hide within group.

The task may lack meaning for the individual.
Social Loafing - Causes
Arousal
An individuals level of activation and alertness in preparation for performance.
Task Difficulty
Personality
Introvert = less arousal for optimal performance
Extrovert = more arousal for optimal performance
Ability Level
Based on your work:
complete questions (with notes)
research correct answers
update revision notes
Revise new topics
Full transcript