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Copy of The War for Independence

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Christopher Helseth

on 12 September 2013

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Transcript of Copy of The War for Independence

The War for Independence
Chapter 4
Chapter 4
Section 1

The Stirrings of Rebellion
Key Terms:
Stamp Act
Samuel Adams
Townshend Acts
Boston Massacre
Boston Tea Party
King George III
Intolerable Acts
martial law
minute man
The Colonies Organize to Resist Britain
In order to finance debts from the French and Indian War, Parliament turned to the colonists wealth and resources.
The Stamp Act:
Passed in 1765, the Stamp Act required colonists to purchase stamped paper for every legal document, license, newspaper and almanac; in addition playing cards and dice were taxed.
Stamp Act Protests:
Boston business formed the Sons of Liberty in reaction to the Stamp Act. Samuel Adams, a founding member became a powerful and influential political activist.
Protests centered on the lack of representation in Parliament for the colonies.
In 1766 the Stamp Act was repealed, but Parliament also passed the Declaratory act - asserting Parliament's right to make laws "to bind the colonies and people of American . . . in all cases whatsoever".
The Townshend Acts
an indirect tax (duty) on imported materials as they left Britain for the colonies, including a three-penny tax on tea.
Activists, particularly in Boston, protested the new tax and lack of colonial representation in government protested the taxes and boycotted goods that were taxed under the act of Parliament.
The Boston Massacre
tensions between colonist and soldiers erupted into an armed clash, that killed five colonists.
the massacre was instigated by the colonists and the soldiers were found innocent in the resulting trial.
political activists used this event as a rallying cry against British oppression.
The Boston Tea Party
the British East India company was nearing bankruptcy due to colonial boycott of tea.
Parliament allowed the British East India Company to sell the tea, tax free. This act cut colonial merchants out of the tea trade.
a large group of Boston rebels dressed as Native Americans and dumped 18k pounds of tea into the harbor.
The Intolerable Acts
in response to the Boston Tea Party, and colonial protests in general, Parliament passed a series of acts that -
shut down Boston Harbor because the colonists would not pay for the damaged tea.
the Quartering Act, authorized British commanders to house soldiers in vacant private homes and other buildings.
appointed General Thomas Gage as the governor of Massachusetts. Gage then placed Boston under martial law.
Martial Law - rule imposed by military force.
Fighting Erupts at
Lexington and Concord
The First Continental Congress
September 1774, 56 delegates met in Philadelphia.
they drew up a declaration of colonials rights and defended their right to run their own affairs.
they supported the protests in Massachusetts and that the colonies should fight back if the British used force.
they agreed to reconvene in May 1775 if their demands weren't met.
colonies stepped up military preparations after the First Continent Congress, stockpiling firearms and gunpowder.
Minutemen - colonial civilian soldiers
British agents learned of stockpiles in Concord, Mass. General Gage sent troops to destroy the munitions.
Paul Revere and other riders learned of the British plans and rode to warn colonists of the attack on Concord.
Lexington
Concord
70 minutemen drew lines to stop the British advance.
the minutemen were ordered to leave, a shot was fired.
in the 15 minute skirmish 8 minutemen were killed and 10 were wounded.
the British entered Concord and found an empty arsenal.
3000-4000 minutemen attacked the British troops, defeated them and the British retreated to Boston
Chapter 4
Section 2

Ideas Help Start a Revolution
Key Terms:
Second Continental Congress
Olive Branch Petition
Common Sense
Thomas Jefferson
Declaration of Independence
Patriots
Loyalists
The Colonies Hover Between Peace and War
May 1775 - Second Continental Congress
Colonial leaders debated independence from Britain.
Debated raged into June. The Congress recognised the minutemen encamped around Boston as the Continental Army and named Geroge Washington lead them.
Congress authorized the printing of paper money and a committee to deal with foreign nations.
The Colonies Hover Between Peace and War.
The Battle of Bunker Hill
June 17th, 1775, British forces attack militiamen who had dug in on Breed's Hill (!)
It would take three attacks to defeat the militia, who ran out of ammunition. 450 colonist were dead along with 1000 British troops.
The Colonies Hover Between Peace and War.
Olive Branch Petition
by July, the Congress was readying the colonies for war, but still hoping for peace.
most delegates still felt great loyalty to the king and blamed the bloodshed on government officials.
the Olive Branch Petition was issued, urging a return to "the former harmony".
King George III flatly rejected it and issued a proclamation declaring the colonies to be in rebellion.
Patriots Declare Independence
Common Sense
penned by Thomas Paine, the pamphlet attacked King George III and called on the colonist to proclaim their independence.
the pamphlet sold 500,000 copies and convinced many colonists that independence was necessary.
Patriots Declare Independence
The Declaration of Independence
Thomas Jefferson was chosen by the Congress to pen a declaration of independence for the Colonies in the summer of 1776.
On July 2nd, 1776, the delegates voted unanimously that the American Colonies were free.
On July 4th, 1776, the Congress formally adopted the Declaration of Independence.
From this point forward there would be no reconciliation with Britain and the Revolution would begin for all of America.
Americans Choose Sides
Patriots:
Loyalists:
supporters of independence.
those who oppose independence and remained loyal to the crown.
Most loyalist were common people who had little connection to, or knowledge of, the events that turned other colonists into revolutionaries.
Others stayed loyal because the believed Britain would win.
Chapter 4
Section 3
Struggling Toward Saratoga
Key Terms:
Valley Forge
Trenton
Saratoga
inflation
profiteering

Valley Forge
while British troops occupied Philadelphia and spent the winter in warm quarters the Continent Army camped in the woods of Pennsylvania.
With little food or supplies, Valley Forge marked a low point for General Washington's troops.
Military Strengths and Weaknesses of the American Colonies
Strengths
Weaknesses
home turf.
good generals and officers.
inspired by the cause of independence.
most soldiers were untrained and undisciplined.
shortages of food and ammunition.
inferior navy.
no strong central government.
Military Strengths and Weaknesses of the British
Strengths
Weaknesses
strong, well-trained army and navy.
strong central government with available funds.
support of colonial loyalists and Native Americans.
large distance separating Britain from the battlefields.
troops unfamiliar with terrain.
weak military leaders.
sympathy of some British politicians for the American cause.
The War Moves to the Middle States
the British moved the war to the middle states to isolate New England.
Defeat in New York
A British and Hessian force of 32,000 force Washington's smaller and poorly equipped army to withdraw from New York in August, 1776,
The Battle of Trenton
Victory at Trenton and eight days later in Princeton gave Washington's army the encouragement to keep fighting.
The War Moves to the Middle States
The Fight for Philadelphia
Spring, 1777 - The Continental Congress is forced to flee Philadelphia as the British capture the city.
Victory at Saratoga
British General, John Burgoyne, led a large and well-stocked army to New York City to meet up the main British Army.
American General, Horatio Gates, led a smaller army and though constant harassment weakened Burgoyne's forces until the British surrendered at Saratoga, NY.
A Turning Point
Victories slowly built French trust in the American Army,
France recognized American independence in Feb. 1778.
France agreed not to make peace with Britain unless it also recognized American independence.
Colonial Life During the Revolution
Inflation:
Profiteering:
decrease in the value of money, that causes prices to rise.
selling scarce goods for profit.
Civilians at War
many soldiers had to leave farms and businesses behind to fight.
Women and African Americans participated in the war as well.
Chapter 4
Section 3
Winning the War
Key Terms:
Yorktown
Marquis de Lafayette
Charles Cornwallis
Treaty of Paris
egalitarianism
European Allies Shift the Balance
Friedrich von Steuben, a Prussian captain, volunteered to help train the Continental Army and went to work "to make regular soldiers out of the country bumpkins".
the Marquis de Lafayette rallied French support and bore the misery of Valley Forge. He would latter lead a command in the last years of the war.
The British Move South
after defeat at Saratoga the British moved the war to the South.
the British easily took Savannah, Georgia and took full control of the colony by 1779.
in 1780, British General, Charles Cornwallis, marched to Charles Town and captured the city.
British troops were bolster by escaped African slaves who hoped to gain their freedom.
British Loses in 1781
American forces engaged Cornwallis' troops throughout 1781. While not always victories they weakened the British Army significantly.
Cornwallis chose to move his troops to Virginia.
He made a fateful error in deciding to camp his troops on a peninsula at Yorktown.
The British Surrender at Yorktown
the arrival of French troops and fleets spurred Lafayette to plan an attack on the British at Yorktown.
the French fleet defeated the British and cutoff supplies and escape.
17,000 American and French forces surrounded Cornwallis's army at Yorktown. On October 17, 1781 Cornwallis surrendered.
Seeking Peace
Cornwallis's surrender effectively ended the war.
Treaty of Paris - 1782
Representatives from the United States, Britain, France and Spain met in Paris to work out a treaty.
Each nation had their own interests and agenda.
France supported American independence.
Treaty of Paris - 1782 to 1783
Adams, Franklin and John Jay ably represented the colonies, demanding that Britain recognize American independence.
Only after Britain agreed to this did talks officially open.
The treaty was imperfect but settled the issue. The United States was a separate nation.
Impact on American Society
Lines between the rich and poor blurred during Revolution as the war forced Americans to struggle together.
These changes stimulated a rise in egalitarianism - a belief in the equality of all people - that fostered the attitude that ability, effort and virtue rather than wealth or family determined a person's worth.
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