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GCSE Physical Education
Transcript of GCSE Physical Education
ASPECTS OF TAKING PART IN EXERCISE
GCSE Physical Education
BY HARRY MILLAR
Contribute to good physical health
Increase in fitness
Improve cardiovascular fitness
Improve muscular strength
Improve muscular endurance
Improve your body composition
Mix with others
Make new friends
Meet current friends
Develop team work/cooperation
Work with others
Relieve and/or present stress and tension
Increase self-esteem and confidence
Help feel good - exercise produces serotonin - a feel good hormone
Contribute to enjoyment of life
5 reasons for taking part in physical activity
Teamwork- support and encourage team work.
Allows you to work with people you wouldn't normally associate with.
Can be regarded as the mental preparation.
Which can drive you to do better, also take away stress.
Something that will physically challenge you to do something, like the London marathon or even coming back to sport after an injury.
Doing something in sport that makes you feel really good.
Like a taking the perfect corner in football or taking the best conversion in rugby, which will make you feel better.
DEVELOPMENT OF FRIENDSHIP AND SOCIAL MIXING
Getting involved and stuck in with others, it will allow you to make more new friends which is a great social aspect. Many sports have a very social side to them, like in rugby the two teams have a meal together after the game
INFLUENCES ON SPORT PARTICIPATION
HEALTH AND WELL-BEING
Transport to and from place of sport
Set an example
Listen to advice
Follow their example
Admire their success and talent
Media coverage informs a vast quantity of coverage on what is going on in the sporting world.
Sports that have a wider media coverage will have more participants like football, however one that do not have much coverage will be at a disadvantage to number of participants
Equipment required for sport may be influenced by famous sports people, like football boots are deigned a-lot by professionals.
Equipment designed by a famous person may influence on what sport they would participate in
Access: Facilities that have easy access will have a higher encouragement rate than facilities with hard access
The more resources and facilities available the more likely people are going to want to participate
Some locations have many more sporting facilities than other locations.
If there is no opportunity or transport locally to you this will have an effect upon whether you will participate or not in sport.
This can relate to how long and when facilities are open.
This can also relate to when the person is able to participate in physical activity.
Some sports or facilities have associated costs such as, equipment, match fees and cost of transport
A number of factors can reflect on whether a person would be able to do these activities; such as, the area they live in, they may not be able to afford the necessary equipment that is needed to be able to participate.
HEALTH AND WELL-BEING
Some individuals suffer from an illness which can prevent them from doing strenuous activity, such as people with sever asthma
Some people may have health problems like: heart issues, circulatory issues or even some brain problems like memory loss
Injury can prevent you from participating in sport such as sprained ankle which can stop you from running, or even a loss of limb which would give you a dissability
These factors can be disability, age, gender and race
Many women, especially Muslim women are not often allowed to take part in sport because of their culture.
Some sports are separate for different sex's such as netball is often a girls sport and rugby is more of a boys sport.
OPPORTUNITIES FOR GETTING INVOLVED IN SPORT
TYPES OF ROLES INVOLVED
ACTIVE KIDS PROGRAMME
All pupils up to age 16 are entitled to 2 hours of high quality PE per week.
This improves pupils fitness.
Sport England creates opportunities for people to start, stay and succeed in sport
Start: increase sport participation
Stay: retain people in sport through an effective network of clubs, facilities and volunteers.
Succeed: create opportunities for talented people to achieve success in their sporting life
ACTIVE KIDS PROGRAMME
Some supermarkets run enterprise schemes, when you spend money in their store you will receive vouchers which can be spent on sports equipment.
Where people are beginning to play sport; starting to learn
People are participating in a specific sports for enjoyment but on a regular basis
People start do develop good skill in a sport. Quality coaching is essential. Also compete at county and regional level
Sporting excellence is what is at the elite level. This section is smaller because few people are at this level.
A form of physical activity which maintains or improves health and/or physical fitness
How good your physical, social and mental well-being are, along with the absence of disease or infirmity
Your ability to meet the demands of the environment
How well you can meet the demands of the environment or physical activity
HEALTH RELATED EXERCISE COMPONENTS
Is the ability to exercise the whole body for long periods of time and is sometimes called stamina.
Is the amount of force a muscle can exert against a resistance.
Is the ability to use voluntary muscles many times without becoming tired.
is the range of movement possible at a joint.
is the percentage of body weight which is fat, muscle or bone.
SKILL RELATED FITNESS COMPONENTS
How much energy your muscles ca produce at speed
The ability to use two or more body pats together
The time it takes for you to react to a stimulus
The ability to change the position of the body quickly and control movement of your body
The ability to retain your center of mass in any held position
The rate at which a person is able to perform a movement or travel a distance
cardiovascular fitness = 12 min run
Flexibility = sit and reach
Strength = hand grip
Agility = Illinois agility run
Reaction time = ruler drop
Balance = standing stork
Power = sergeant jump
Speed= 30m sprint
Coordination = ball throw
BEFORE STARTING A FITNESS PROGRAM
PARQ = complete a physical activity readiness questionnaire
History of personal activity levels, past and present levels of exercise.
Medical examination = see doctor to check respiratory system and blood pressure.
TARGETS AND TRAINING
PRINCIPALS OF TRAINING
Individual needs = matching the training requirements to the individual
Specificity = matching the training requirements to the activity
Progressive overload = gradually increasing amount of overload to increase fitness and reduce risk of injury
Frequency = how often you train
Intensity = the level that you train at
Time = how long you train for
Type = what type of training methods are used.
Rest = the period of time allowed for recovery and allow time for adaptions to take place
Recovery = the time it takes for the body to repair itself
Reversibility= any positive adaptions you have gained from training will be taken away
By having goals or aims to achieve, you have a specific focus to work towards.
You can also plan, record and measure how well you are doing.
Knowing exactly what the goal is. It is specific and relevant to your needs.
Making the goal so that you can measure how well you are doing or when it has been achieved.
Make the goal or target so that, in the end you will be able to do it.
A goal or target needs to be doable in theory as well as practice. Also something that your own body will be able to physically achieve.
How long you have to achieve the goal or if it even has an end point
METHODS OF TRAINING
Easy to set up, is flexible
Select appropriate exercises to your sport
Develop both fitness and skills
Easy to apply progressive overload
Can require lots of different equipment
Have to keep checking stopwatch
Be difficult to maintain work rate
Can work on own or in group
Improves aerobic fitness
Can be easily adapted
Can become boring/ requires motivation
Does not develop other components of fitness
Can do in a short time frame
Includes rest periods
Can raise heart rate to near max BPM
Develops both aerobic and anaerobic systems
Difficult to indentify how hard some one is working
Be difficult to maintaining work rate
Short periods of time
Includes repitions/ get heart rate to near max BPM
Develops both aerobic and anaerobic systems
Can be done almost anywhere and any terrain
Difficult to identify and maintain work rate
Improves strength, endurance and power.
Increase muscle size
Tones your muscles
Assist recovery after injury
Focus's on specific areas
Easy to apply progressive overload
Requires specialist equipment
Can be expensive
Requires knowledge of how to do it.
Cross is a mix of training methods NOT activities.
Allows a variety of training methods which can keep it interesting.
Certain muscle groups can be rested day to day.
Training plan can change to suit weather conditions
3 parts of it:
The pulse raiser
Raises performers heart rate above rest for more than 20 minutes.
Could involve a game or competition.
Lowers the bodies heart rate
Disperses lactic acid
Should be between 5 - 10 minutes
WELL BEING AND
Benchmark level of fitness to enjoy work and life
a balanced diet that is good for you
Can provide finance, motivation and support
Maintains balance between work and exercise
Happiness and well being
Frequently used by marathon runners and ultra-distance athletes, like triathletes.
Means taking in lots of carbohydrates to fill energy resources to the maximum
Can allow for weight loss over a fairly short period.
Used for rehabilitation after injury by burning fat and increasing muscle mass.
POSSIBLE SIDE EFFECTS
Taking to much animal protein raises cholesterol levels. Makes heart diseases, strokes and diabetes a higher risk.
Also can cause kidney damage long term.
At the beginning of exercise, blood is sent to the working muscles meaning that less blood is available for the digestive muscles. This may lead to discomfort and cramps if you have just eaten.
This process of moving blood from one area to another is called blood shunting.
PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND YOUR HEALHY MIND AND BODY
Fatness, wide hips, narrow shoulders.
Forwards in rugby
Muscularity, wide shoulders, narrow hips and defined muscle outlines.
Suited to more anaerobic events
Very linear, thin, narrow body and very little meat on them
: classification of body type
This is the most favorable weight to what you do and to be healthy.
It may relate to their specific sport or an individuals general lifestyle.
It can be found by using the BMI index or measuring the wrist girth
: taller people are generally heavier than shorter people
: males have larger muscle mass and bones.
: everyone has a different frame size which can differ your weight.
: individuals will have different size muscles.
WEIGHT RELATED CONDITIONS
A prolonged eating disorder and loss of appetite.
Can lead to extreme weight loss and result in serious lack of nutrition as well as physiological problems related to obsessions with food and calories.
Term used to describe someone who is very over fat.
Leads to risks of cancer, heart disease, heart attacks,high blood pressure and diabetes.
Having body fat in excess of normal.
A weight lifter may be overweight in their BMI but not necessarily overfat
Having weight in excess of normal. (not harmful unless accompanied by overfatness)
May be caused by medical reasons. But generally because of over eating and lack of activity.
Weighing less than normal, or below a healthy level.
Some sports you can be underweight in like Jockey racing.
A drug that mimics male sex hormone - testosterone, and promote muscle growth.
Increases muscle mass and bone growth. Allows athlete to train harder and quicker.
Can increase aggression and produces its results quickly
A drug that is used to control the heart rate, e.g. slowing it down for archery to be able to hold bow more steady.
Can reduce stress and anxiety levels. Also can reduce the heart rate to a dangerous level.
A Drug that elevates the rate of urine production.
Can be used to lose weight quickly and also to lessen the concentration of other banned substances within the body.
A drug that is used to reduce pain
Act by depressing the central nervous, therefor reducing amount of pain signals to the brain
A drug that increases physical and mental alertness. Enables you to think more quickly thus reacting faster
Similar to anabolic steroids by increasing muscle growth and help recovery after an injury.
Increase number of red blood cells, allowing more oxygen to be carried.
High blood pressure, liver disease, increased risk in muscle injury and infertility in women
Nausea and diarrhea, tiredness, depression and insomnia/nightmares
Dehydration, muscle cramps, headaches and kidney damage.
Loss of concentration, loss of balance, Hallucinations.
Insomnia, irritability, irregular heart beat, increased heart rate, high blood pressure and very addictive.
Thickens blood leading to increased risks in strokes and heart attacks.
EFFECTS DURING EXERCISE
INCREASED HEART RATE
Muscles require more oxygen whilst working so the heart has to be faster to pump blood carrying oxygen and nutrients to the muscles whilst moving lactic acid and CO2 away from them.
INCREASED BLOOD PRESSURE
Blood pressure increases during exercise and the heart is beating harder forcing more blood through the vessels.
SYSTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE
Systolic pressure is the force the blood is having against the arteries as the heart contracts.
DIASTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE
pressure of blood on arteries during the relaxation phase of the heart beats.
The difference between Systolic and Diastolic pressure.
Muscles need oxygen and energy to work, if not enough oxygen is getting to the muscles, they will then anaerobically respire. This produces lactic acid and acid within your muscles will make them ache.
BREATHING DEEPER AND FASTER
Breathing becomes deeper to allow more oxygen to be brought in and more CO2 to be let out per breath.
Breathing becomes faster because it will allow more cycles of breath to make sure all de-oxygenated blood becomes oxygenated.
EFFECTS OF REGULAR EXERCISE
Decreased resting HR
Faster HR recovery
Increased stroke volume
Increased cardiac output
Reduced blood pressure
Healthy veins and arteries
Narrowing of coronary arteries
High blood pressure
HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTIEN (HDL)
It contains more protein than fat in it, it is often referred to as good cholesterol. it carries cholesterol away from arteries and veins to the liver.
Fruit and vegetables are very rich in HDL
LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN (LDL)
Consists of mainly fat, it can lead to a build up of plaque inside veins and arteries restricting the blood flow. Thus creating a higher blood pressure
Smoking - Raises blood pressure and decreases levels of HDL
Alcohol - In moderation thought to increase HDL but binge drinking is very harmful
Prescription drugs - Can be taken control blood pressure.
The amount of air
inspired and expired
with each normal
breath at rest
The greatest amount of air that can be made to pass into and out of the lungs by the most forceful inspiration and expiration
Oxygen used during anaerobic exercise often results in oxygen debt and is repaid through deep gasping breaths after the exercise.
EFFECTS OF REGULAR PARTICIPATION
Increased oxygen delivery
CO2 is removed more efficiently
Vital capacity increases
Increased number of capillaries.
Increased VO2 max
These muscles are consciously controlled, they can also be trained to work for longer and at a higher intensity with out tiring.
Also we can train them to become more flexible, these muscles are generally the larger muscles on your body, e.g. quadriceps
The muscular system causes movement throughout the body by contractions and relaxation.
They help to define the body and give you your posture and body shape.
There are two types voluntary and involuntary.
These are muscles that are controlled automatically, like you do not have to tell your heart to beat every time.
These muscles are the organs such as the heart, lungs and digestive muscles.
FAST AND SLOW TWITCH FIBRES
Fast twitch fibers cause explosive movement, easily tire out, an anaerobic fiber
Slow twitch fibers are powerful and have much more endurance than fast twitch ones which allows them to resist fatigue, aerobic
Muscles are attached to bones by tendons and are made up of a number of muscle fibers. These fibers contract causing movement - they pull against the skeleton but cannot push. Therefore muscles are arranged into antagonistic - pairs - as one contracts the other relaxes.
- Contracting something in wards, e.g. forearm lifted up, thigh lifted up
- Extending a body part out, e.g. lowing forearm, raising of lower leg
- where you can rotate a joint, e.g. shoulder
- lifting away from body, e.g. lifting arms in air
- bringing in towards the body, e.g. bringing your legs together
ISOMETRIC AND ISOTONIC CONTRACTION
- these are contractions that result in movement
- these are muscle contractions that the muscle contracts but there is no visible movement
- bones meet to form joints, tendons attach bones to muscles enabling movement.
- protects vital organs.
- supports body in all sorts of positions also giving the body its shape.
Allows (e.g. the arm) to flex and extend. Biceps cause cause flexion and triceps cause extension
BALL AND SOCKET JOINTS
(e.g. the shoulder) the ball shaped head of the bone fits into the socket of the shoulder, all ranges and types of movements are able to be performed at these joints.
Closed fractures - the skin over the break isn't damaged.
Compound fracture- The bone protrudes the skin.
Simple fracture- The bone is only part broken, along one line
Stress fracture- where a diagonal line is created as a break because of to much weight baring exercise.
Tennis/golfers elbow - overuse of the tendons at joint, Tennis is outside of elbow whilst golfers is inside of elbow
Dislocation- when a bone is forced out of its normal position from a hard blow.
Sprains- is a damaged ligament, caused by pulling to far on that ligament like twisting your ankle.
Torn cartilage- when the cartilage at joints is torn
TREATMENT FOR INJURIES
30 METRE SPRINT