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Science T.E.K.S Projects
Transcript of Science T.E.K.S Projects
Category 2: Force, Motion, and Energy
Category 3: Earth and Space
Category 4: Organisms and Environments
Science T.E.K.S Projects
The atom is composed of Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons. The proton, located in the nucleus, has a positive charge. The neutron, also located in the nucleus, has no charge. The electron has a negative charge and rotates around the nucleus in the electron cloud. Protons and Neutrons weighs 1amu and are considerably the same size, electrons however are very small compared and weigh 1/1836amu.
Vocabulary: Electron Cloud- The only way to describe where electrons are when they rotate around the nucleus
Protons determine an elements identity and are equal to the number of electrons, but valance electrons determine its chemical properties such as reactivity
Vocabulary: Reactivity- the state or power of being reactive or the degree to which a thing is reactive
determine reactivity by stating how many valance electrons the atom holds,
determine how many electron shells there are in an electron cloud
Vocabulary: Electron Shell- a grouping of electrons surrounding the nucleus of an atom
Chemical formulas are used to identify substances as well as determine how many atoms f which element there are, for example, the formula 4C shows there 4 carbon molecules
Vocabulary: Chemical Formula- a representation of a substance using symbols for its constituent element
During a chemical reaction, new substances are formed when two elements react chemically. This is shown physically by gasses forming, changing of color, bubbles rising, or thermal changes.
Vocabulary: Substance- a particular kind of matter with uniform properties
The law of conservation of mass states matter cannot be created or destroyed, this is shown in a chemical equation, every element must be present in the product with its correct value of atoms, this is sometimes shown through coefficients, for example, Fe
is equal to 2FeO
Vocabulary: Coefficient- a multiplier or factor that measures some property.
Tertiary Consumer- Eagle (eats other consumers)
Predator- Bird (eats prey)
Consumer- Snail (eats producers)
Producer- Grasses (produces its own food)
Vocabulary: Tertiary Consumer-a carnivore at the topmost level in a food chain that feeds on other carnivores
All Metals share common properties, they have luster, are malleable, can conduct electricity and/or heat, and are magnetic. Non-metals are brittle, dull, non magnetic, and poor conductors. Metaloids share a combination of both metal and non metal properties.
Vocabulary: Luster- a gentle sheen or soft glow, especially that of a partly reflective surface.
Unbalances forces change the speed or direction of an object by being greater than the existing force, for example if a box is being pushed 20n to the right by person A, then person B starts pushing with 60n of force to the left, the box will move 40n to the left.
Vocabulary: Newtons- a measurement of force
Speed is calculated by the equation Speed= Distance/Time, its used to show how fast an object is moving or how much distance it can cover in a certain amount of time
Acceleration is a change in speed or direction, whether it is speeding up or slowing down, turning right or left
Velocity is speed with a direction, for example 5mph south
Vocabulary: Direction- what way an object is moving
Newtons law of Inertia states that an object at rest stays at rest until acted upon by an unbalanced force and an object in motion stays in motion until acting upon by an unbalanced force. This is shown in seat restraints, if you slammed on the breaks, you will fly froward with the same speed as the car was traveling until you hit the restraint that is a stronger holding force than you hurdling forward. The law of acceleration states that the more mass an object has, the more force it takes to accelerate. This can be demonstrated through plate tectonics, because the plates are so heavy, you can't merely push on them so they will move, it takes tons and tons of force created by magma under the earths crust in order to accelerate the plates. The law of Action-Reaction states for every action there is an opposite and equal reaction. This can be shown by rocket launchers. As the boosters ignite they push against the ground and the ground pushes back up at the boosters.
Vocabulary: Inertia- an objects resistance to a change in motion
Potential energy is when an object has the potential for movement, when a rock is held 5 feet off the ground, for example, it has the potential to drop
Kinetic energy is the energy an object has when it is moving, or when the object 5 feet off the ground has been dropped
Vocabulary: Kinetic Energy-energy that a body possesses by virtue of being in motion.
Speed is Calculated by distance/time, if a car travels 300 meters in 2 hours, how fast was is going?
S= 300m/2h= 150mph
Vocabulary: Speed- how much distance an object can cover in a certain amount of time
Energy can be transferred in a heat lamp from chemical to radiant to thermal
Vocabulary: Thermal Energy- energy in the form of heat
The tilt of the earth axis causes the seasons because the sun hits the earth unevenly, some parts of the year the northern hemisphere is getting me direct heat (summer) and other parts its tilted away from the sun (winter). Days are created by Earth spinning on its axis, one rotation every 24 hours.
Vocabulary: Rotation- spinning on an axis
The Lunar Cycle lasts about 28 with nearly 3 days between each phase. Each Cycle begins with a New moon and gradually gains light intil reaching a full moon, afterwords it begins to loose light until reaching a new moon. If there is a 1st quarter moon for example on 4/24 then on 5/24 there will be another 1st quater
Vocabulary: Waxing- to gain light
When the moon and sun align, the Earth tides feel the effect of both their gravitational pulls combined and create whats called a spring tide. When the moon and sun are parallel, the tides feel their gravity alone and so are weaker or neap tides
Vocabulary: Spring tides- higher stronger tides
In the universe, there is a vast amount of galaxies filled with billions of nebula, stars, planets, asteroids, and other space materials. In order to classify stars, scientist use HR Diagrams. They measure the luminosity, temperature, and color to plot it on the graph. Our sun is a main sequence phase.
Vocabulary: Galaxy- a collection of space matter such as suns, planets, and nebula
The galaxy we live in, named the Milky Way, holds billions of solar systems millions of light years (the distance light travels in a year) away. Our solar system is in the extended arm of the spiral galaxy, it contains nine planets and our sun, a medium sized star. Because our sun is so close to us, it does not matter that it only emits a small amount of light compared to other stars, its proximity allows an altered comparison to us on Earth.
Vocabulary: Spiral Galaxy- a Galaxy with spiral shaped arms
There are 3 different plate boundaries, divergent, convergent, and transform. Divergent plates occur when two plates diverge or move away from each other. This causes the sea floor to spread and continents move apart. Convergen plate boundaries occur when two plates converge or come together. This can cause mountain ranges (went the two plates are continental) subduction zones, vulcanic activity, or islands (when dealing with one or more oceanic plate). Transform boundaries occur when two plates slide past each other causing faults.
Vocabulary: Sea Floor Spreading- the formation of new areas of oceanic crust, which occurs through the upwelling of magma at midocean ridges and its subsequent outward movement on either side.
Topographic maps are used to show differences in elevation, each level of elevation is mapped by a countour line. Erosional featues are showed by changes in he line pattern, for example a river that has cut through a mountain will carve tiny canons in the mountains.
Vocabulary: Countor Lines-a line on a map joining points of equal height above or below sea level.
A food web always begins with a producer such as a plant or grass, then a consumer will eat the producer. A predator will then eat the consumer and so on. A parasite will latch onto its host and suck the nutrients out of it, a parasite will harm the host.
Vocabulary: Parasite- an organism that lives in or on another organism (its host) and benefits by deriving nutrients at the host's expense.
In an ecosystem, organisms will compete for many abiotic and biotic factors in order to survive. Some abiotic factors include space, water, and light, biotic factors include prey. in this way they depend on the abiotic factors to be plentiful or readily avaliable to support the lowe levels of the food chain
Vocabulary: Biotic Factors- any living component that affects another organism
Long term environmental changes would include global warming or an evolving ecosystem, short term environmental changes include natural disasters, drought, or a volcanic eruption. Long term changes require organisms to evolve or adapt , but short term only effects the current generation
Vocabulary: Long Term Environmental Changes- a long-term change in the earth's climate, especially a change due to an increase in the average atmospheric temperature
Before the Industrial Revolution, the moth population had a distinctly white color due to the camouflage provided by the whitened bark trees, after the Industrial Revolution the trees turned a blacker shade, providing better protection from predators for the black winged moths. They were able to survive due to sexual reproduction, these varied wing colors caused by mutations or genetic differences between the moths allowed for adaptation. This is the downfall of asexual reproduction. While reproducing asexually provides a quick way for organisms to give plenty offspring, because they are genetically identical there is little chance of mutation or adaptation
Vocabulary: Mutation- the changing of the structure of a gene, resulting in a variant form that may be transmitted to subsequent generations
The digestive system breaks down food and absorbs nutrients, the skeletal system consists of the bones and joints, and supports and protects the body, produces blood cells, and stores minerals. The respiratory system regulates intake of oxygen and removal of carbon dioxide from body, the nervous system controls the bodies activities and the reaction to stimuli, excretory system controls water and salt balance by removing waist through urine, the endocrine system controls the production and production of hormones. The circulatory system transports blood, nutrients, water, and disease fighting cells, integumentary protection of body from injury and bacteria.
Vocabulary: Stimuli- something that causes a specific functional reaction in an organ or tissue
The plant and animal cells share many common organelles, they both have a nucleus, mitochondria, cell membrane, vacuoles, and cytoplasm, the plan cell however holds larger vacuoles, a cell wall, and cloroplast.
Vocabulary: Organelles- any of a number of organized or specialized structures within a living cell.
The domains Bacteria and Archaea represent two kingdoms, Bacteria and Archaea. The domain Eukarya contains four kingdoms: protists, fungi, plants, and animals. Organisms are placed into kingdoms based on characteristics such as their ability to make food (autotroph) , the number of cells in their bodies (multicellular or unicellular), and how they reproduce (sexually or asexually). All animals are multicellular eukaryotes and heterotrophs.
Vocabulary: Heterotrophs- An organisms that gets its energy from eating other organisms
We can use wavelengths to gain information about distances because as things move away they emit a redlight invisable to the human eye, and when they move closer they emit a blue light also not visable.
Vocabulary: spectroscope- an optical device for producing and observing a spectrum of light
The sun provides the source of energy for the Earths atmosphere but because it heats the hearth unevenly, it creates areas of high and low pressure. Because the low pressure areas are less dense, they rise as the denser high pressure areas sink, creating winds. This also occurs with the ocean, as the sea heats slower than land its higher pressure mass and lower pressure land mass create a convection cycle. You can see these patterns on a weather map as areas of high pressure rotates clockwise and low pressure counter clockwise. During the hot summers near the equator, the water is warm and the air warmer, creating the perfect conditions for a hurricane and monsoons.
Vocabulary: Low Pressure Air- when an air mass gets warms and molecules expand becoming denser