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The French Revolution
Transcript of The French Revolution
Legislative Assembly by J.M. Moreau Le Jeune.
Tennis Court Oath
June 29, 1789
Said that the Third Estate National Assembly would not Break away from the Estates General until a constitution was written.
It was called Tennis Court Oath because the representatives where literally locked out of the meting of the Estates General and went to a nearby Tennis Court House in order to make the oath
This oath was the spark of the revolution
Raid of Bastille
July 14, 1789
Bastille was a fortress and a prison. It only contained seven prisoners but held many weapons.
Bastille was raided because of a rumor that the king would send imperial troops in an attempt on an attack on the National Assembly.
Officially started the French Revolution
Nearly 18 people dead and 73 wounded
The Great Fear
July 19th - August 3rd
The Great Fear was started when rumors were spread around the country said that the aristocracy would send military to invade peasant lands
In response to rumors peasants arm themselves and attack nobility manors.
This caused thecaused the National Assembly to stop fuedalism.
Declaration of the Rights of Man
August 26, 1789
The Declaration of the Rights of Man was developed by National Assembly. It was the first step in making the constitution. The basic principles of this document was Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity.
Civil Constitution of Clergy
July 12, 1790
Legislative Assembly 1791- 1792
Legislative Assembly 1791
France Declares War on Austria and Prussia
Aug. 20, 1792
France declares war Austria and Prussia. The reason is simple. The army of Prussia threatened that if the Royal family was harmed that they would destroy Paris. France answers and declares war on Prussia and Austria combining forces.
Mob invades Royal Palace
August 10, 1792
Here an angry Revolutionary mob attacked the Tuileries Palace in Paris
and the Legislative Assembly falls
Also, The Minister of Justice Danton kills thousands of people who were assumed to be traitors
By: Panayiotis Nicolas
Le Serment de Jeu de paume by Jacques-Louis David
Prise de la Bastlle by Jean Pierre Houel
Declration by Jean-Jacques Francois LeBarbier
Jacques Bertaux - Prise du palais des Tuileries
Execution of Louis XVI by Graveur
The French Revolution
by J.M. Moreau Le Jeune
Bataille de Fleurus by Jean Baptiste Mauzaisse
The National Convention was a group that met in order to discuss male suffrage and to rewrite the constitution.
National Convention Moves
Sept. 21, 1792- Jan. 21, 1793
On Sept. 21, 1792 the Convention abolishes the monarchy and declares France a republic.
Then a month later on Oct. 21, 1792 the Revolutionary calender is introduced. Sept. 22, 1792= day 1. Later on the Convention condemns the king and executes him and his family.
Counter Revolutionary Revolt
In this event, there was an attack in district called Vendee as a counter revolutionary act. Many civilians were killed. This attack called for 300,000 French soldiers. The reason for this attack was because of the resentment of the Constitution of the Church. They were not benefiting from the seige of church lands.
Reign of Terror March 1793
The reign of terror was a period in time when much violence broke out in France.
Thousands of people where executed with a weapon called a guillotine.
The guillotine was used to kill many important figures such as Louis XVI, Maria Antoinette, the Girondins and etc.
The Civil Constitution of the Clergy was a way for the country to gain control over the church in the country. The first thing that they did was they confiscated all church lands. Next, they made all the clergy sign an oath to obey the constitution instead of to the pope. Part of that was that the government would pay all salaries of the clergy and would maintain the churches. Finally, the government made the people vote for their clergy and set districts for them.
The Legislative Assembly was the new name of the National Assembly. After the Constitution was established, the government turned to a Constitutional government which is a government run by the a constitution and elected officials. The Jacobins and the Girodins were two parties that were there to change the people's minds about thinkgs. Similar to our Republicans and Democrats in the American Government. The Jacobins were a radica ldemocratic group that though that the kind could not be trusted. The Girodins were on the other hand favored a constitutional monarchy since they believed that the revolution was over.
Constitution is Issued
In Sept. 1791, The National Assembly issues the new French Constitution and elections are held.
Meanwhile, Louis XVI was caught trying to escape France in order to make an alliance with Austria for a counter evolution. He was caught and was sent back to be executed
Attack at Valmy
The Prussians, led by the Duke of Brunswick were marching toward to Paris. The French led by General Francois Kellerman and Charles Dumouriez stopped the advance at a village called Valmy, Belgium
Both the French and Prussians were pretty even as far as being outnumbered. Both armies ranged from 34,000-36,000 men and 40-50 cannons
Battle of Valmy by Jean-Baptiste Mauzaisse
French Constitution Made by Bénard; Restored by Jebulon
Battle at Vendee by Paul-Emile Boutigny
Also during this time the Committee of Public Saftey had to take over and govern France from Jan. 1793 to July 1794. The main leaders of this was Charles Danton and Maximilian de Robespierre.
August 23, 1793
The Levy-In-Mass was the French military draft. The words Levee-en masse literally means: "the people's uprising." This is almost the same as the American Military Draft. People become the means to defend their country.
July 28, 1794
Robespierre was executed in 9 Thermidor Year (July 27, 1794). The reason for this was that he and his Jacobin followers were causing much terror through out the country. He had control over the military, the loans from banks and his opposition to corrupt rulers started rumors about him. Thus creating a motive to get arrested. He got arrested along with his followers on July 27, 1794. After the execution, it was a clear turning point in the revolution
*refer back to slide 31 for a picture of the execution of Robespierre
by Jacques-Louis David
Madame Raymond de Verninac
The Origin of The Directory
A new document , the Constitution in Year III dissolved the National Convention and came up wiht the Directory. Under the new constitution, there were two groups. The first one was the Council of 500 and then there was the Coucil of Ancients. Each term for a delegate was three years.
Whiff of Grapeshot
Oct 5, 1795
13 Vendémiaire is the name given to a battle between the French Revolutionary troops and Royalist forces in the streets of Paris.
Despite being outnumbered by approximately 6 to 1, the Republican forces held their perimeter, the cannons firing grapeshot into the massed royalist forces. They were led by a man named Napolean Bonaparte. At the end of the battle apporiximately 300 royliats were killed.
Due to military Disasters in 1798 and 1799, the Directory shattered and fell. Napolean took this as an opportunity seized parliamentary and military power in France. ON the night November 10, 1799 thec council of Ancients abolished the 3rd constitution and legalised the coup d' etat in favor of Napolean. The coup d'etat was the new form of government in France. The coup d'etat abolished the directory and started the Consulate.
The new government was composed of three parliamentary assemblies: the Council of State, the Tribunate , and the Legislative Assembly
French makes peace with Austria
The French finally makes peace with Austria after fighting for years. France continues its conquest by taking Rome, Naples,and Swizterland led by Napoleon Bonaparte. After that though, France lost an utter defeat in Egypt.
Frances Renews War with Britain 1803
France was making its way across Europe quickly. Napoleon made his march across the Alps and Russia decided to surrender. Britain, the last force was tired of war and decided to end the war as well. This brought about the Treaty of Amiens. This brought about peace between Russia, Britain, and Austria thus abolishing the Second Coalition
Britain stopped following the laws underneath the Treaty of Amiens. This started a Third Coalition which started the war between France and Britain.
The Napoleonic Code established many laws that issued liberty. They allowed freedom of religion. Many of the Napoleonic Code laws came from other countries.
3rd Coalition Wars 1805
This started when Napoleon crowned himself king of France. Napoleon atte,pted to attack the British, Austrian, and Russian forces at but failed by a huge navy powerhouse. However, Napoleon took many victories against Austria and Russia
Napolean's Deafeat in Russia
Napoleon was determined to take Poland from the Russian rule. He went there with 600,000 men. After that he started toward Moscow.. Meanwhile, the forces of Britain, Russia, and Sweden allied to bring him down. Napolean fought hard but was no match for the guns of the British thus being forced to retreat from Moscow. Only 40,000 men were survivors from that battle.
Opposing Forces take France down
After suffering a bitter defeat Napoleon had to rebuild his army. He joined forces and created an army of 1,800,000. He was able to hold off until the Battle of the Nations where France was crushed and had to retreat back to France. There he got crushed again and he was captured and sent into exile.
Battle of Waterloo
Napolean came back to power in 1815. Many countries heard of this and allied in order to take him down again. Napolean attacked the British forces first. The Brititsh were able withstand until the Prussians came and broke the French lines. They arrested Napoleon again and exiled him where he died and restored the French monarch to Louis XVII.
Napoleon Crossing the Alps Jacques-Louis David