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Mass media revision lesson 3
Transcript of Mass media revision lesson 3
Revision What is Mass Media? The ways in which information (news, entertainment, education etc) is communicated to a large number of people. There are generally 3 types of media: Print audio-visual Cybermedia (digital) Ownership and control of the media Cross-media ownership Vertical Integration Diversification Media conglomerate Synergy Convergence Large media companies that own a range of different types of media Companies that own the means of production and distribution of media Large companies that branch into new business areas to spread the risk of profit loss Transnational corporations that have outlets in many different countries One media product is promoted using another Many media types can be accessed from one device Pluralism Media represents democratic society
Media allows us to express our views
Media represents diversity of culture and ideas
Ownership of media gives us a true reflection of society to allow us as consumers to make informed choices.
Media audiences are not passive as we have have the ability to pick and choose what we consume
Media is economically driven not politically driven
Public service broadcasters such as the BBC and Channel 4 support the pluralist view by broadcasting media that provides information to all social groups. Marxism The media is used to ensure that the working class accept capitalism (Ruling class ideology)
The media is used as a way of convincing the public that capitalism is beneficial (false-class consciousness)
Audiences are passive and the media is used to shape our view of the world in which we live through carefully selected information
Consumers are presented with a 'perceived' reality
The media represents capitalist society and ultimately benefits the ruling class.
The BBc has become more commercialised as they target large audiences by offering entertainment based viewing.
Consumers are led to believe that they have a choice of media (Fallacy of choice) The Glasgow University Media Group Argues that the media does not serve the interests of the ruling class as this is merely a byproduct
Journalists are predominantly (54%) middle class, having received independent education (private schools) which accounts for educating 7% of all children.
The GUMG argue that consumers are presented with a middle class view of the world.
Therefore cultural hegemony prevails as the principles of capitalism are accepted through consensus. Cultural hegemony Ruling class ideals that are presented as normal and natural through consensus New Media Compression Media that has been tailored for specific audiences. Interactivity Media that has become real-time Who uses New media? Generational differences in media consumption
Global differences Perspectives on New media Neophiliacs - new media offers consumers more choice and interaction with different types of media
Cultural pessimists - New media is an illusion of choice and serves to benefit capitalism Postmodernism Consumption is shaped by mass media and not production and manufacturing.
Society is media saturated
Media influences identity more so than social structures
Media provides us with information about our experiences of most of our social reality.
Globalisation means that we have more cultural influences
We look to the media for examples and reassurance for socially accepted behaviour.
Our identities are constructed through labels and images
Virtual communities (Chat rooms, online games, forums, facebook) Hypodermic syringe model Media causes violence
The media transmits messages that are received by the audience and then acted upon
Effects are immediate
Consumers are passive receivers
Copy cat crimes and health awareness campaigns The idea that children are subjected to many media images of violence that they come to see it as normal. Desensitisation Media violence can provide people with an outlet for aggressive tendencies Catharsis The notion that being exposed to media violence will allow people to see the emotional effects and subsequent consequences of such actions. Sensitisation Bandura's (1963) infamous bobo doll experiment can be used as evidence to support this theory The reception analysis model Negotiated - Audiences may reinterpret media messages to fit in with their own lives (Active audience) Dominant - Most people are likely to go along with media messages (consensus). Oppositional - A minority will oppose. People interpret media messages according their social background (class, age, gender, ethnicity etc)
Active consumers that make choices about the types of media that they consume
Media messages are 'POLYSEMIC' - they attract many interpretations based on a persons background People can interpret media messages in 3 ways: 2 Social networks of people (such as family, friendship groups, forums etc) are dominated by and 'opinion leader' who holds strong opinions about matters in the public sector. The opinion leader is a person that the rest of the group look up to. Opinion leaders immerse themselves in many different types of media to make informed opinions regarding social matters. Members of social group internalise interpretations of media content Opinion leaders interpret media messages Conscious choices made by viewers
Media has to appeal to a heterogeneous audience
Viewers choice is made to fulfil a specific need
Sport for men, Corry for older people etc. Uses and Gratifications model Surveillance Diversion Personal relationships Personal identity 4 basis needs that the media satisfies: Media is used to escape from the stresses of everyday life or fill a void of something that is lacking (eg Romance) Media gives us a sense of connection with others (community) as we identify with people we see in the media Consumers may use the media to help them in their own lives and Consumers are able to keep an eye on current affairs and make informed opinions about them.