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Substance

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anirudh mysore

on 20 September 2013

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Transcript of Substance

Classifying Matter
By: Anirudh, Tea, Edward
Substance:
A single kind of matter that is pure, which means it always has a specific makeup or composition
Substances can not be separated into other forms by physical separation methods and they are homogenous
Substances are elements and compounds which can either be solids, liquids, gases, or plasmas
Tin
Water
Sulfur
Diamond
Sucrose (sugar)
Sodium Chloride (table salt)
Sodium Bicarbonate (baking soda)

Examples of Pure Substances
Element:
Is a substance that cannot be broken down into any other substances by physical or chemical means
Elements are the simplest substances that can be identified by its specific chemical or physical properties
They can be represented by one or two letter symbols
There are 118 known elements in which 5 have not been officially confirmed yet
Elements 113-118
Uut = Ununtrium
Uuq = Ununquadiam
Uup = Ununpentium
Uuh = Ununhexium
Uus = Ununseptium
Uuo = Ununoctium
Compound:
Is a substance that is made of two or more elements that are chemically combined in a set ratio
Every compound is represented by a chemical formula, which shows the elements in the compound and the ratio of atoms
The number after the atom tells you the number of atoms in the compound and if there is no number it is understood to be one
When elements chemically combine they form compounds with properties different from those of the elements
Examples of compounds
CO2 = Carbon dioxide
O2 = Oxygen
YbCl3·6H2O = Ytterbium(III) chloride hexahydrate
C169723H270464N45688O52243S912 = Titan
Mixture:
Is made of two or more substances that are together in the same place, their atoms are not combined chemically, and they can separate
Solution
Is a homogenous mixture containing a solvent and at least one solute that has the same properties throughout; a mixture in which one substance is dissolved in another
Physical change:
Chemical change:
Matter:
Is anything that has mass ,takes up space and has volume
Everything around you is all matter
Can come in the form of a solid, liquid, gas, plasma
Chemistry is the study of matter and how matter changes
Matter is made up of tiny building blocks called atoms
Most common 3 states of matter on earth are solids, liquids, and gasses
Much of the mass in the universe are in the form of hot plasmas
Is a characteristic of a substance that can be observed without changing into another substance
Is a characteristic of a substance that describes its ability to change into different substances
Homogeneous: mixture that is uniform in composition throughout and has specific properties

Heterogeneous: does not have a definite composition

• Methods:
o Distillation- heating the mixture so that the substance w/ a lower boiling point will become a gas- then travels through a tube and is condensed back to a liquid and into a flask
o Evaporation- when a mixture turns to a gas and leaves behind solids
o Filtration- pouring the mixture through a filter can separate the mixture
o Magnetic Attraction- Using a magnet can attract/ separate the iron from the mixture

Examples Homogeneous Mixtures:
Examples Heterogeneous Mixtures
Water
Air
Tea
Jell-o
Kool-Aid
Cereal in Milk
Soil (pebbles, plant matter, sand)
Solvent: component of a solution that is present in the greatest amount, substance in which solute is dissolved

Solute: can be one or more of this in a solution, the component that dissolves into the solvent

Examples:

Solid= brass
Liquid= Kool Aid
Gaseous= air
All mixtures can be separated
Seawater: solvent- water solute= salt
Physical change takes place without any changes in molecular composition

The same element, compound is present before and after the change
Types of Physical changes:
The same molecule is present throughout the changes
1. Crushing a can
2. Melting an ice cube
3. Boiling water
4. Mixing sand and water
5. Breaking a glass
To observe the chemical properties of a substance you must try to change it into another substance
Types of Chemical changes:
1. Rusting of iron
2. Burning of wood
3. Cooking an egg
4. Baking a cake
5. Mixing baking soda and vinegar to produce carbon dioxide gas
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