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The History and Effects of U.S. Neo Colonialism on Latin America

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Rachel Haferman

on 29 October 2012

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Transcript of The History and Effects of U.S. Neo Colonialism on Latin America

The History and Effects of U.S. Neo Colonialism on Latin America Guatemala (cc) image by jantik on Flickr What is Neo Colonialism? Neo Colonialism is the act of a country, normally one of great power, extending its influence into another, often, less developed country. - Had been trapped in a feudal system since the time of the Spanish Conquistadors - 2% of the population have control over 70% of the usable land - Jacobo Arbenz Guzman came to power - United Fruit Company - CIA began secret operation called PBSUCCESS - Installed military dictator, Armas, who reversed reforms Cuba - Won their independence from Spain in 1898 during the Spanish-American War - Platt Amendment passed in 1901 allowing the U.S. to interfere with Cuban affairs - 1903 Permanent Treaty Signed - Sent U.S. troops anyway to "protect" U.S. interests - U.S. now owned of 80% of Cuba’s utilities, 90% of its mines, close to 100% of its oil refineries, 90% of its cattle ranches, and 40% of its sugar industry - Cuban Revolution led by Fidel Castro and Ernesto 'Che' Guavare was in full effect by 1959 - U.S. supported Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista who imposed a repressive and widely hated regime on his people - Cuban Revolutions success becomes a symbol for Latin America Panama - 1856 was the first of five U.S. interventions in Panama to protect the Atlantic-Pacific railroad from Panamanian nationalists. - In 1903 When negotiations with Colombia break down, the U.S. sends ten warships to back a rebellion in Panama in order to acquire the land for the Panama Canal. - In 1925 U.S. Army troops occupy Panama City to break a rent strike and keep order. - Ricardo Adolfo de la Guardia deposes Panamanian president Arias in a 1941 military coup-- first clearing it with the U.S. Ambassador. - U.S. Army School of the Americas opens in Panama as a hemisphere-wide military academy. Its linchpin is the doctrine of National Security, by which the chief threat to a nation is internal subversion; this will be the guiding principle behind dictatorships in Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Chile, Central America, and elsewhere. Chile - In 1970 Salvador Allende Gossens was elected in Chile. He suspends foreign loans, nationalizes foreign companies. For the phone system, pays ITT the company's minimized valuation for tax purposes. The CIA provides covert financial support for Allende's opponents, both during and after his election. - In 1973 U.S. supported military coup kills Allende and brings Augusto Pinochet Ugarte to power. Pinochet imprisons well over a hundred thousand Chileans (torture and rape are the usual methods of interrogation), terminates civil liberties, abolishes unions, extends the work week to 48 hours, and reverses Allende's land reforms. Brazil - In 1962 the CIA engages in campaign in Brazil to keep João Goulart from achieving control of Congress. - In 1964 João Goulart proposes agrarian reform and the nationalization of oil. Ousted by U.S.-supported military coup. In Summary The United States in total has played a large role in the politics of over 13 Latin American Countries: Panama, Nicaragua, El Salvador, Colombia, Cuba, Mexico, Costa Rica, Honduras, Brazil, The Dominican Republic, Bolivia, Chile, Uruguay, and Puerto Rico "A State in the grip of neo-colonialism is not the master of its own destiny. It is this factor which makes neo-colonialism such a serious threat to world peace."
- Kwame Nkrumah
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