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Fitness training and programming - flexibility, speed, power and strength

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junaid khaliq

on 12 April 2016

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Transcript of Fitness training and programming - flexibility, speed, power and strength

Fitness training and programming
Flexibility is the range of motion that a joint or group of joints can move through
Static and dynamic stretching
Static stretches are slow and controlled
The production of strength at speed .. the ability to to generate and use muscular strength quickly
Methods of training
Static and dynamic flexibility can be developed through a range of training methods
Improves individuals flexibility
Speed is required by an athlete to maximise performance
Methods of training
Acceleration from a standing position is a critical aspect in sporting performance
Interval training
Can improve anaerobic endurance
Short specific speed training
Sport may require short specific speed training to improve performance
Physical aspect of fitness
Hill sprints
Hill sprints used to increase speed, coordination and acceleration
Methods of training
Free weights
Resistance machines
Allow individuals to change load based on their training programme schedule
Benefits of strength training
Persons appearance can change as a result of strength training
Improving flexibility can improve performance because a greater ROM = more power and help prevent injury and pain through movement restrictions
Static and dynamic flexibility
SF - ROM that muscle or joint can achieve and limited by structure of bones and joints .. and muscle size and tone
DF - ROM that muscle and joint can achieve while you are moving and limited by levels of static flexibility and coordination
Poor flexibility lead to:
Decreased ROM
Increased injury
Decreased sport performance
Flexibility limitations
Body composition/fat
Genetics (inherited)
Age and gender
Muscle and tendon elasticity
Main methods Static stretching Dynamic stretching
Ballistic stretching PNF
General principle = is to overload the specific muscle group by stretching muscles beyond what they are used to
Aim = increase ROM and work required muscles and joints
For improvement .. individuals must increase the duration of stretching and repetitions to allow overload
Flexibility training is best completed after a training session because of significant affect by temperature of muscles and connective tissues
Ensure stretching prior to activity is low intensity (not too far..too soon)
Passive and active
Passive stretching is known as assisted stretching as it requires the help of people or objects
Other person applies external (push or pull) force which forces muscle to stretch
Active stretching can by achieved by an individual .. and involves voluntary contraction of specific muscles
Dynamic flexibility is important for sports with high speed movements and movements that take a joint/muscle past its normal ROM
Start with small movement and gradually increasing both movement range and speed
Ballistic and PNF stretching
Have to make fast, jerky movements .. usually taking form of bouncing and bobbing through full ROM
Should be specific to movement pattern experienced in sporting activity
Can lead to soreness and strain.. must be undertaken carefully with technique
Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF)
Advanced form of stretching and most effective to increase flexibility
Remember that pain is the signal you are working too hard .. means you have taken it too far
- Stretch target muscle group the upper limit of its ROM
- Isometrically contract muscle or muscle group against a partner for 6-10 seconds
- Relax muscle or muscle group as your partner stretches it to a new upper limit of ROM
- Muscle is stretched out to point of bind by trainer
- Trainer asks athlete to contract and push muscle against them (40-50% effort)
- Contraction held for 10 seconds
- When muscle is relaxed ..the trainer stretches the muscle further
- Again contraction is applied and then the muscle is re stretched
- Performed three times
Ability to move over a distance in the quickest possible time
Speed endurance is a secondary element and combines with anaerobic endurance
Ability to make repeated sprints over a period of time and important in team sports
Interval training and short specific speed training can benefit speed and acceleration
Importance of speed and acceleration in sport?
Work intervals for aerobic training = long in duration and low intensity (to train aerobic system)
Anaerobic endurance = work intervals are shorter and more intense (near maximum)
Helps athletes improve speed and anaerobic endurance
Principles of overload and progression can be brought in by decreasing the rest period
Team based sports - concentrate on different distances and movement patterns
Power is important ...when and why?
Two common methods of power training
Hill sprints
Designed to improve explosive leg power and is regularly used to increase power in sports
Useful training method because it engages and stretches the target muscle/groups at the same time
A contracted muscle becomes stronger if stretched and like most elastic tissue muscles produce more force if previously stretched
Muscle = elastic band principle
Plyometrics facilitates force production by taking muscle through eccentric action before a powerful concentric muscle contraction
Causes muscle spindles to cause a stretch reflex .. preventing muscle damage and producing max force (rapid)
Activities - hurdle jumps, leg bounds, box drills, plyometric press ups and medicine ball throws
Sprints can be up or down a hill depending on the content and aims of session
They involve shorter stride length and longer contract time with the ground then flat sprints
Knee, ankle and hip joints more flexed during hill sprints and greater muscle activity in the gastro, quadriceps and glueteus maxmimus groups
Learning outcomes
Know different methods of fitness training
Be able to plan a fitness training session
Be able to plan a fitness training programme
Be able to review a fitness training programme

Footballer may have to make 10-30m sprints continuously throughout a game
What is overload and progression?
Because players sprint over varying distances and movement patterns by sprinting in different directions
Athletes who are interested in health related fitness do not acquire or want power
Because it is needed by athletes in specific sports
Key for sporting activities involving jumping and sprinting
Ability of a specific muscle or muscle group to exert a force in a single maximal contraction
Not just limited to boxing and weightlifters
High intensity
Pros and cons
- Increased oxygen uptake

- Better oxygen delivery to muscles

- Cross-training in a single workout

- Stronger cardiopulmonary fitness

- Can help prevent repetitive stress injuries

- Burns more calories

- May cause more fat burning than regular cardiovascular exercise

- Increased lean body mass
intervals are periods of exercising hard, with rest or low intensity periods in between. For example you may run 100 meters at 85% and then 200 at 50% to recover. This is one rep. You may perform this 5-10 times, which would complete the set.

Advantages -
-Can mix aerobic and anaerobic exercise which replicates team games
-It makes it easier for a coach to see when the athlete isn't trying

Disadvantages -
- It can be hard to keep going when you start to fatigue
-Can become boring
Power is a skill related component of fitness. . ability to generate and use muscular strength quickly
Changes known as increased muscle tone or muscle hypertrophy
Muscle tone = muscles have a more defined appearance
Muscle hypertrophy = growth of the muscle and happens when muscle fibres and myofibrils increase in size
3 types of muscle fibres
Barbells or dumb bells
Allow individual to have a constant resistance during a dynamic action
Increases strength in the short term.. increases range of movement .. specialises in certain movement or muscle groups .. and some movment aids the training of balance and coordination
Both resistance machines and free weight improve strength but injury risk is higher with free weights
How can you overcome this?
Spotters are used to oversee an individual
Resistance ranges from 0-100kg on most machines ..allowing overload and progression
Machines are expensive making them unpractical at home
Also limited to specialist exercises due to their design
Positives are - safety element compared to free weights
Can be used by beginners who are still learning difficult movement patterns
Individuals can change range of movement at specific joint by adjusting machine settings
Type I fibers known as slow twitch fibers
Type IIa fibers are sometimes known as fast oxidative fibres and are a hybrid of type I and II fibers
Often known as fast glycolytic fibers
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