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Chapter 30: World War I

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Jacki Carugno

on 22 September 2016

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Transcript of Chapter 30: World War I

U.S. isolationism doomed the Treaty of Versailles and indirectly led to World War II
France, without an ally, built up a large military force
Germany, suspicious and fearful, began to illegally do the same
Adolf Hitler to seized power in Germany
It was the U.S.’s responsibility to take charge as the most powerful nation in the world after World War I, but it retreated into isolationism
such actions eventually led the U.S. into WWII
America had prided itself in isolationism for decades
Six senators and 50 representatives, including the first Congresswoman, Jeanette Ranking, voted against war.
“make the world safe for democracy.”

From Isolationist to...INVOLVED
Paris Conference in 1919, the Big Four—Italy, (Vittorio Orlando), France (Georges Clemenceau), Britain (David Lloyd George) and the U.S., (Woodrow Wilson)
Britain and France wanted to punish Germany, Italy wanted money & land, the U.S. wanted to heal wounds through Wilson’s League of Nations
Britain and France agreed to go along with the League, Wilson reluctantly agreed to go along with punishment.

An Idealist Battles the Imperialists in Paris
At 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month of 1918, the Germans laid down their arms in armistice after overthrowing their Kaiser in hopes that they could get a peace based on the Fourteen Points.
This “Armistice Day” later became “Veterans’ Day.”
It was the prospect of endless American troops, rather than the American military performance, that had demoralized the Germans.

The Fourteen Points Disarm Germany
America was very unprepared for war
America’s army was only the 15th largest in the world.
In March 1918, Wilson named Bernard Baruch to head the War Industries Board ~ coordinated war industries

Factories Go to War
many Germans were blamed for espionage activities
The Espionage Act of 1917 (illegal to interfere with recruitment or disclosure of defense information) and the Sedition Act of 1918 (illegal to obstruct the sale of Liberty Bonds or discuss anything disloyal about the government, Constitution or military) showed American fears and paranoia about Germans and others perceived as a threat.

Enforcing Loyalty
Woodrow Wilson delivered “Peace without Victory” address (beating Germany without embarrassing them)
Germany responded by shocking the world, announcing that it would break the Sussex Pledge and return to unrestricted submarine warfare
Wilson asked Congress for the authority to arm merchant ships, but a group of Midwestern senators tried to block this measure

Preparing for War
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Poster for returning service men
At the end of the war, the federal Employment Service tried to help returning soldiers and sailors to find jobs. Unemployment for 1918 and 1919 was less than 2%, but it rose above 5% in 1920 and to nearly 12% in 1921.
Lodge now came up with fourteen “reservations” to the Treaty of Versailles
which sought to safeguard American sovereignty.
Congress was especially concerned with Article X
morally bound the U.S. to aid any member of the League of Nations
wanted to preserve its war-declaring power
Wilson hated Lodge and refused to accept his suggestions
Defeat Through Deadlock
Herbert Hoover head the Food Administration
Lever Food and Fuel Control Act: set prices and establish production controls for food and fuel
voluntary restrictions ~ "heatless Mondays", “Meatless Tuesdays”, “Wheatless Wednesdays” and gasless Sundays"
America had to feed itself & its allies
War Economy
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Europe Transformed by War and Peace
After President Wilson and the other conferees at the Paris Peace Conference negotiated the Treaty of Versailles, empires were broken up. In eastern Europe, in particular, new nations emerged.
Map: Europe Transformed by War and Peace
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Europe Goes to War, Summer 1914
Bound by alliances and stirred by turmoil in the Balkans, where Serbs repeatedly upended peace, the nations of Europe descended into war in the summer of 1914. Step by step a Balkan crisis escalated into the "Great War."
Map: Europe Goes to War, Summer 1914
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
American Troops at Western Front, 1918
America's 2 million troops in France met German forces head-on, ensuring the defeat of the Central Powers in 1918.
Map: American Troops at Western Front, 1918
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
The War in Europe, 1914-1918
This map identifies the members of the two great military coalitions: the Central Powers and the Allies. Notice how much territory Russia lost by the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk as compared to the armistice line (the line between the two armies when Russia sought peace).
Map: The War in Europe, 1914-1918
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Postwar Boundary Changes in Europe and the Middle East
This map shows the boundary changes in Europe and the Middle East that resulted from the defeat of the four large, multiethnic empires--Austria-Hungary, Russia, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire.
Map: Postwar Boundary Changes in Europe and the Middle East
French troops mobilized to meet German divisions.
French war strategy had not changed much since the 1800s.
French soldiers marched row by row onto the battlefield, with bayonets mounted to their field rifles, preparing for close combat with the Germans.
The Germans had many machine guns and mowed down some 15,000 French troops per day in early battle.
each machine gun matched the firepower of 50 to 100 French rifles.
thought these technological advances would make the war short and that France would be defeated in two months.
A New Kind of Warfare
Click on the window to start video
effects of World War I in Europe were devastating.
nations lost almost an entire generation of young men
France was in ruins
Great Britain was deeply in debt
reparations forced on Germany were crippling to its economy
World War I would not be the “war to end all wars”
issues were left unresolved
anger and hostility
Impact in Europe
Charles Schenck, a socialist, organized the printing and distribution of leaflets opposing the war
He was arrested and convicted of violating the Espionage Act, but he challenged the conviction in the Supreme Court
the Court upheld his conviction, limiting free speech during war
Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. wrote the Court’s unanimous decision, stating that some things said safely in peacetime are dangerous to the country during wartime.
Opponents Go to the Supreme Court
Wilson urged the public to pressure Republican (reservationist) senators into ratifying the treaty, warning of serious consequences if world nations didn’t work together
8,000 miles in 22 days
suffered a stroke
the U.S. signed separate treaties with Austria, Hungary, and Germany, but never joined the League of Nations

Wilson Tours America
America’s Involvement
1915 Germany sank the Lusitania ~ a passenger ship to from NYC to Great Britain killing 128 Americans
Wilson demanded an end to unrestricted submarine warfare
Germany agreed to attack only supply ships but later sank the French passenger ship Sussex, killing 80 people
Wilson threatened Germany again, and Germany issued the Sussex Pledge, promising not to sink merchant vessels “without warning and without saving human lives.”
Americans thought little of the conflict
U.S. would stay neutral = isolationism
Supported Allied cause
Germany's "cruel" tactics
U.S. also had greater ties to Great Britain and France than to Germany
the British blockaded German ports = no trade with Germany
The United States Stays Neutral
Austria-Hungary blamed Serbia for the killing, and because Russia had vowed to protect Serbia, Russia’s army began to mobilize.
Germany, allied with Austria-Hungary, declared war on Russia and France, Russia’s ally.
Germany crossed into neutral Belgium, bringing Belgium and its ally, Great Britain, into the conflict. (Germans greatly outnumbered the Belgium soldiers.)
Most countries had chosen sides in World War I.
War Breaks Out
Germany strongly protested the treaty but signed it after France threatened military action.
Allies presented the Treaty of Versailles to Germany in May
treaty was harsher than Wilson wanted, requiring Germany to:
Disarm its military forces
Pay $33 billion in reparations (Germany could not afford)
Take sole responsibility for starting the war
Central Powers also had to turn over their colonies to the Allies until they could become independent
treaty included some of Wilson’s Fourteen Points, such as the creation of a League of Nations and self-determination for some ethnic groups in Eastern and Central Europe.
The Treaty of Versailles
By the time it passed, over 600,000 Americans lost their lives.
Three waves of a severe flu epidemic broke out between 1918 and 1919 in Europe and in America.
Of all American troops who died in World War II, half died from influenza.
On the Western Front, crowded and unsanitary trenches helped flu spread among troops, then to American military camps in Kansas and beyond.
This strain of influenza was deadly, killing healthy people within days, and during the month of October 1918, influenza killed nearly 200,000 Americans.
Panicked city leaders halted gatherings, and people accused the Germans of releasing flu germs into the populace.
Influenza Spreads

3,000 miles away, most Americans cared little about the murder
Sparks of World War I

Selective Service Act ~ requiring men between 21 - 30 to register for a draft
Summer 1917 ~ new recruits reported for training
no barracks and no supplies
over 4,000,000 men and women
The American Army
1. Democrats supported immediate ratification of the treaty
2. Irreconcilables wanted outright rejection of U.S. participation in the League of Nations
3. Reservationists, led by Senator Henry Cabot Lodge, who would only ratify a revised treaty
Reservationists thought the League of Nations charter requiring members to use force for the League conflicted with Congress’s constitutional right to declare war.
Fight over the Treaty
The Committee on Public Information (CPI) led by George Creel
posters, news stories, speeches, and other materials to influence opinion
Uncle Sam saying “I Want You for the U.S. Army.”
President Wilson used a number of tactics to gain the support of Americans who had favored neutrality in World War I.
schools stopped teaching German, and symphonies stopped playing German music
German-sounding names were changed, so sauerkraut became liberty cabbage and hamburgers became liberty steak.
Reports spread that German secret agents were operating in the U.S., causing some Americans to discriminate against German Americans.
Influencing Public Opinion
Going to war was extremely expensive, and President Wilson needed to find ways to pay for it.
Congress passed the War Revenue Act of 1917 ~ established high taxes
wealthy taxed Americans up to 77%
It increased federal revenue by 400% within 2 years.
Mobilizing the Economy
Loans and Liberty Bonds
Wilson sparked an intense campaign to sell Liberty Bonds.
They were a form of loan to the government from American people.
Better World
President Wilson had a vision of a better world.
He wanted nations to deal with each other openly and trade with each other fairly.
Wanted countries to reduce their arsenal of weapons
Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia wanted new nations
Poland was created
Ho Chi Minh worked at the Paris Ritz hotel and asked France to free Vietnam.
Conflicting Needs at the Peace Conference
Many Allies wanted to punish Germany for its role in the war.
Georges Clemenceau accused Germany of tyrannical conduct, exemplified by the huge loss of life and the continued suffering of veterans.
Reasons for War
1. Germany's use of unrestricted submarine warfare
2. Zimmerman Note ~ written by German foreign secretary Arthur Zimmerman, it secretly proposed an alliance between Germany and Mexico ~ if the Central Powers won, Mexico could recover Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona
3. 1917 ~ the Bolshevik Revolution in communist Russia caused Russia to pull out of the "capitalist" war ~ Russia pulling out allowed the U.S. fight solidly for Democracy in the war

African American soldiers were segregated
Used for non-combat positions (menial labor)
National War Labor Board, headed by former President Taft, settled any labor disputes
Union membership increases ~ American Federation of Labor (AF of L), led by Samuel Gompers’, which represented skilled laborers, loyally supported the war
Union membership increased by about 60 percent between 1916 and 1919, and unions boomed as well, with more than 6,000 strikes held during the war.

Labor shortages and high wages drew African Americans from the south to the north
During WWI, over 454,000 migrated to Northern cities

The Great Migration
1919 ~ Family moving from the South to Chicago
women also found opportunities in the workplace taking over traditional male jobs
this helped them gain support for the 19th Amendment.
most women gave up their jobs after the war
Job Opportunities
Fighting in France
a year after Congress declared war, the first American troops reached France ~ used as replacements
American troops were also sent to Belgium, Italy, and Russia

Hammer the "Hun"
spring 1918 ~ 500,000 Germans attacked the western front
30,000 American troops sent to the French front lines to stop the Germans from taking Paris
first significant engagement of AEF
July 1918 ~ the German drive had been halted
Allies launch a counteroffensive in the 2nd Battle of the Marne
General John J. Pershing's army undertook the Meuse-Argonne offensive from September 26 to November 11, 1918
cut the German railroad lines feeding the western front
Inadequate training left 10% of the Americans involved in the battle injured or killed
German supplies ran low and as their allies began to desert them ~ defeat was in sight

farmers were paid higher prices for crops
Victory Gardens
Prohibition (Volstead Act)
introduced daylight savings time to extend daylight hours for factory workers with long shifts
June 28, 1914
Gavrilo Princip, member of the terrorist group The Black Hand, assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria on his visit to Sarajevo, Bosnia.
The War Reaches a Stalemate
believed the war would be over by Christmas 1914
two massive systems of trenches stretched 400 miles across Western Europe
Soldiers lived in trenches, surrounded by machine-gun fire, flying grenades, and exploding artillery shells
“no-man's land”
Germany's Use of Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
Germany suffered because of the British blockade, so it developed small submarines called U-boats to strike back at the British.
1915 the German government threatened to destroy ships around Great Britain ~ neutral ships might be attacked
Wilson believed it violated the laws of neutrality and would hold Germany accountable for American losses
April 6, 1917 ~ US declares war
The Betrayal of Great Expectations
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