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Sound and Frequency
Transcript of Sound and Frequency
Cycles per second
Sound Pressure Level (SPL) Describing Frequencies We can categorise frequency bands within sounds with descriptive words Equalisation Distinguishing Frequencies The ability to estimate the frequency of sounds is a useful skill for audio engineers Sine Wave The simplest sound wave
Only one harmonic Psychoacoustics The study of the human perception of sound Bandwidth Humans can perceive sound frequencies from 20Hz to 20kHz With age and exposure to high SPLs the upper limit decreases What is the upper limit of your frequency perception? Spectrogram of the hearing test Audio Track 4
1 second sine wave pulses from 12kHz to 20kHz in steps of 500Hz The brighter the colour the higher the amplitude Why Use EQ? - To correct errors in the frequency spectrum that are present due to the recording technique
- To change the timbre of a sound
- To unmask inaudible sounds EQ is used as a production tool to increase and decrease certain frequency bands Audio Track 3
Drums Pre and Post EQ When recording and mixing music it is useful to describe frequency bands to aid communication Audio Track 7: Trumpet Solo Describe the sound of the following frequency bands with appropriate adjectives Audio Track 8
Trumpet 200Hz to 400Hz Audio Track 9
Trumpet 1000Hz to 3500Hz Audio Track 10
Trumpet 6000Hz to 8000Hz Audio Track 11
Trumpet 8000Hz to 12,000Hz Spectrogram of the Frequency Sweep Audio Track 3
Frequency Sweep from 20Hz to 20kHz Raise your hand when you can no longer hear anything 100Hz and 1000Hz Sine Waves Audio Track 1
100Hz and 1000Hz sine waves 260Hz and 520Hz Sine Waves Audio Track 2
260Hz and 520Hz sine waves 260Hz is the fundamental Frequency of Middle C on a piano 260Hz and 520Hz are one octave apart because the frequency is doubled Listen to the following sine waves
10,000Hz Now the same waveforms will be played in a different order
Write down which frequency you believe is being played next to each letter
F. Choose from:
100 Hz, 500Hz, 1000Hz, 2000Hz, 5000Hz, 10000Hz Answers
F. 500Hz How Did You Do? Cymbals maybe described as having "Gong", "Bite", "Clunk", "Crispness" and "Sizzle" Distinguish between the frequencies of different tones Describe frequency bands within a sound Audio Track 5 & 6
Frequency Test Higher frequencies are perceived as having higher pitch Everest. A (2007) Critical Listening for Audio Professionals, Boston: Course Technology
Howard. D and Angus. J (2006) Acoustics and Psycoacoustics, Oxford: Focal Press
Rumsey. F and McCormick. T (2009) Sound and Recording, Oxford: Focal Press Further Reading