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Child Labour

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Phoebe Say

on 25 June 2013

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Transcript of Child Labour

A World Issue: Child Labour
"Stripped a kid of his freedom so we could look good while enjoying our own."
By Natalia Jedryczko
* Violation of human rights
* The use of children in work that is harmful to their development, especially physically and mentally.
* The existing laws and regulations in a country where child labour is a problem are often ignored or not enforced.
* The inadequate education available for these children.
* Poverty is the greatest cause of this issue, as children are forced into labour in order to contribute to their family income and survive.
* The supply and demand economies of the world that fuel the issue.

The Issue:
Who are the stakeholders?...
E
V
E
R
Y
B
O
D
Y
!

What is child labour?
The employment of children in work that ultimately takes away from their childhood, interferes with their ability to attend regular school, and, in many cases, is mentally, physically, socially or morally dangerous and harmful.
Questions to be asked:
* When does childhood end and adulthood start?

- The United Nations defines children as people under eighteen years of age.
- The International Labor Organization (the UN body responsible for workers' rights) says that no child under 15 should be in full-time work.

* Should children be allowed to work, and if so what conditions should be considered acceptable?
Physical Geography

Countries where child labour occur often have warmer climates and larger amounts of land, rich in agricultural resources.
Human Geography
Nearly all child labourers live in countries where levels of poverty are high, trade unions are weak or banned, laws on child labour are nonexistent or not enforced, and education systems are inadequate or nonexistent.
* Multinational corporations
* Countries where child labour occurs
* NGO's
* Governments and countries around the world
* Consumers...
YOU and ME
- 250 million children between the ages of 5 and 14 years involved in economic activity in developing countries alone.
- For 120 million of them, work is full-time.
- Approximately 115 million work in the worst forms of child labour.

* 98% of child labourers live in Asia, Africa, Latin America, and the Middle East
Let's take a closer look...

Forms of Child Labour
Agricultural
Work
Manufacturing
Children are able to contribute to family income
Children do not receive the nurture and education they need to thrive and be future leaders of society.
Pros
Cons
Trafficking
Domestic Services
Child
Soldiering
Most child labourers are
exploited
, as they receive less money than adults and work for longer hours and in harsher conditions.
Most working children are found in rural areas, on small farms or large commercial plantations.
Children may work long hours, spray pesticides without wearing protective clothing, and use heavy equipment and dangerous tools.

Some of the goods produced by these children include coffee, cocoa, tea, sugar, fruits and vegetables, and fish and seafood (that end up on OUR dinner tables!)
Work shops and factories:
Most children who work in manufacturing are found in small workshops producing goods to be sold locally.
Some work in large factories, producing goods (such as clothes or shoes) for export. Most do repetitive, unskilled work in poor conditions. Accidents are common and safety regulations are routinely ignored.
Some children work as bonded labourers, working for others to pay off debt, often for years and in harsh, dangerous conditions.
Effect on local people and communities:

* The cycle of poverty continues as many children are not able to get a good education and rise above their circumstances

* Standards of living remain low

* Communities lack a strong social structure
(children lack education and security, adults lack stable jobs to support family, etc.)
Effect on the world at large:

* Well-developed countries of the world are intertwined in the vicious cycle of child labour, as they fuel the issue by importing goods from industries that use child labour.

* Through economic globalization multinational corporations, such as Coca-Cola and Nike, have developed immense international power and wealth.

* Through social globalization we need to be able to look at the conditions third world countries are facing, and the injustices being done against children, and realize that it is wrong and must be stopped.
Depleted work force
Economic Decline
Low personal Income
Lack of access to food/safe water
Hunger and poor sanitation
The Cycle of Poverty
Possible
Solutions
Cost-benefit
analysis
Possible Consequences
Important to consider:
* the age of the child
* the environment the child is exposed to
* the type of work being preformed
* whether the work takes away from the child's
education
The purpose of the
Convention on the Rights of the Child
, adopted by the UN in 1989, is to ensure the following rights:
* right to life
* right to be free from discrimination
* right to be protected in armed conflict
* right to be protected from torture or cruel, inhumane, or degrading treatment or punishment
* right to be free from arbitrary deprivation of liberty
* right to special treatment within the justice system
* right to education, health care, and an adequate standard of living
* right to be free from economic exploitation and other abuse
(work preformed by servants in a household)
(removing people by force or deceit from their community and selling them, often in another country)
http://www.ilo.org/public/english/bureau/inf/wdacl/english.htm
How can you help?

Educate yourself:
* Learn about countries where child labour is a problem.
* Find out about companies that are likely to employ children.

Dig Deep:
* Be prepared to ask for more info.
* Contact your government officials.

Look at the label:
* Some industries label products made without child labour.

Pay a fair price:
* Look for fair trade products.

Support the cause:
* Get involved in organizations or campaigns that are working to fight child labour and injustices against children.





Whats in your wallet??

Just DON'T do it
Disease, malnutrition, and poor health
Factors contributing to child labour:
* Poverty
* Culture and tradition
* Market demand and the "New World Economy"
* Lack of secure education systems
* Lack of modern technologies

* The effects of income shocks on households

* Inadequate/poor enforcement of legislation and policies to protect children

*
Manufacturers
should take
initiative
by phasing out of the practice. Whenever possible, child labourers should be
replaced by adult
members of the same family.

*
Government industries and organizations
should be pressured to provide transitional
economic support
for the children and their families. More
job opportunities
and necessities such as
health care
need to be provided to people

*
Educational
opportunities and transitional support needs to be offered for children to ensure they have a
brighter future
and do not end up working in more dangerous jobs.

*
Laws and regulations
need to be enforced and protected.

*
Promote fair trade.
These practices guarantee a fair price to small-scale producers and enable co-operatives to stay in business. These co-operatives consequently provide goods and often reinvest profits in the community, where the money is used to build schools, medical clinics, wells, etc.

Developed countries
Profit vs. People?
* Consumers must pay a higher price for mass produced materials and other products in order to ensure those making the products get a fair pay at the end of the supply chain.

* Manufacturers and multinational corporations need to pay their workers better wages and ensure the conditions they are working in are safe.
* Governments and organizations need to prioritize the well-being of the people living in this third world reality. Laws need to be enforced. Education needs to be provided. Job opportunity needs to be provided. Health care needs to be provided.
BASIC HUMAN NECESSITIES!
* The cost of agricultural and manufactured products would
increase. Consumers must pay more money.

* International organizations would be called on to push efforts to end poverty and child labour. Money to fund operations and campaigns.

* The supply chain could be fueled. More money in the pockets of the producers and workers. Working conditions would be raised. Children would have the opportunity to go to school. Parents would be better able to provide for family.
Central America - Domestic Services

In Guatemala and El Salvador, tens of thousands of girls works as domestics, some as young as 8 years old.
South Asia - Carpet Production
In India, there is an estimated 200,000 and 300,000 children involved in the carpet industry, most of them in the carpet belt of Uttar Pradesh in Central India.
West Africa - Cocoa Production
70 % of the world's cocoa is grown in the Ivory Coast, Ghana and Nigeria in western Africa. Most of the workers are young men and boys, including 284, 000 children.
Kenya
More than a million children who work in fields harvesting coffee, tea, and other crops are subject to dangers from pesticides and other assorted injuries that usually go untreated and leave children to suffer
Southeast Asia - Child Sex Tourism
Child sex tourism is a type of child exploitation that involves adults who travel to other countries to engage in illicit sexual conduct with local child prostitutes. A life of prostitution is devastating to a child's physical and emotional well-being.
Colombia - Child Prostitution
Child prostitution is widespread in Colombia. Colombia's government does not always serve as an ally for young prostitutes, and various agencies have stepped in to help remove young girls from this dangerous profession.
Bolivia - Coal Mining
In Bolivia, children work at dangerous mining jobs, often replacing older workers who have been injured or killed,
South Asia - Bonded Labourers
Bonded child labour is a form of slavery that subjects young workers to a range of abuses and violations of their dignity and humanity.
(Forcing children to fight in armed conflict. Both very physically and psychologically damaging to child)
“No to child labour is our stance. Yet 215 million are in child labour as a matter of survival. A world without child labour is possible with the right priorities and policies: quality education, opportunities for young people, decent work for parents, a basic social protection floor for all. Driven by conscience, let’s muster the courage and conviction to act in solidarity and ensure every child’s right to his or her childhood. It brings rewards for all.”
Juan Somavia, ILO Director-General
“All child labour, and especially the worst forms, should be eliminated. It not only undermines the roots of human nature and rights but also threatens future social and economic progress worldwide. Trade, competitiveness and economic efficiency should not be a pretext for this abuse.”
United Nations System Chief Executives Board for Coordination (ILO, Geneva, 2007)
http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2013-06/12/content_16608993.htm
http://allafrica.com/stories/201306130861.html
"If child labor is not acceptable for white, middle-class North American kids, then why is it acceptable for a girl in Thailand or a boy in Brazil?"
Full transcript