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The origins of the First World War WITH ANSWERS

The Origins of the First World War WITH ANSWERS
by

Elisabetta Paoli

on 26 September 2016

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Transcript of The origins of the First World War WITH ANSWERS

c) The struggle for China p. 270 -271
1. COLONIAL RIVALRY
1815-1870 Only
France
and
Britain
interested in colonial Empire.
From 1870 other European states started to colonize
Africa
and
Asia
.

a) Causes of New Imperialism. p. 266 -268
b) The Scramble for Africa p. 269
Economic Motivation
Imperialism meant large profits for
big business
.
Lenin
stated that imperialism was a result of modern capitalism dominated by
monopolistic combines
(big businesses). However Britain had
largest empire
but few
combines
. Furthermore European combines did not always support their country’s
imperial
policy.
Powers were searching for
markets
and protecting their
goods
with
tariffs
..Actually colonies did not supply many
raw materials
and did not increase the mother country’s
foreign commerce
because the colonial people had little
purchasing power
.Most countries however saw
economic advantages
in colonies.

e)
Germany’s Weltpolitik
p. 274
The Franco-Russian Alliance p. 273
TURKEY, BOSNIA and the BLACK SEA 1908
d)
Anglo-German relations 1890-96
p.273
b)
Germany’s “new course

a) 1908 The Bosnian crisis p. 277 and the Balkans
i) The Triple Entente
g) The Anglo-French Entente p. 275
a) Bismarck’s legacy p.272
S. Trent
2. EUROPEAN RELATIONS 1890 -1907
More Alliances p. 275
Germany - France - Russia - Britain
Britain and France did not want to get involved
in the
Russian and Japanese
controversies in China

- In 1904 an agreement (
Entente Cordiale
) settled their :
colonial problems
.
British supermacy in
Egypt
. , Morocco= French
sphere of influence
The entente had serious consequences for
Germany

c) The Second Moroccan crisis 1911 p. 278
Application Software and Web Technology
- Revolt in
Fez
, Morocco 1911
France
sent troops.
- Germany sent warship, the
Panther
,to protect German citizens but really to demand from
France
territorial compensation in Africa. In return Germany wld recognise French protectorate over
Morocco
. Germany asked for the whole of French
Congo
.’.
British
fleet was put in alert. Germany and France signed an agreement by which
Germany
gained only strips of land in French
Congo

h) The First Moroccan crisis 1905-106
p. 276
j) The situation in 1907 p.277
3) INCREASING TENSION 1908-1913 p.277
Anglo-Russian agreement for partition of Tibet, Afghanistan, Persia) p. 276
WHO OR WHAT WAS TO BLAME FOR THE FIRST WORLD WAR?
On
28th June 1914
, Archduke Francis Fedinand , heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, was assassinated in
Sarajevo
. Within
6 weeks
all Europe was
at war
.

Comparison of strengths of European powers 1900 p. 265
Largest population:
Russia
. /smallest population:
Italy
Largest army:
Russia
/smallest army:
Italy
Largest amount of foreign trade:
Great Britain
. /smallest amount of foreign trade
Italy
Largest merchant fleet:
Great Britain
./smallest merchant fleet:
Russia
Largest navy:
Great Britain
/ smallest navy:
Austria-Hungary
Which was Europe’s strongest power, which its weakest?
Great Britain
/
Italy

Colonies 1800
Colonies 1900
ii) Security p. 267
France looked for prestige by occupying colonial territories. ‘. Britain expanded her colonial conquests eg. Occupied
Egypt
, then Sudan to protect
Egypt's southern border .
iii) Nationalism
Colonies =
status symbol
.’. nationalistic masses supported
imperial expansion.
Social Darwinism took Darwin’s ideas on
evolution
and applied them to
international relations
.
Countries were in continuous struggle to predominate only
the fittest
survived.
iv) Humanitarian concerns
“advanced” countries had to bring “civilization” to savages. See Conrad’s Heart of Darkness vs.
Kipling’s The White Man’s Burden theory
v) Unplanned actions
eg. France’s empire in
West Africa
resulted from the work of
colonial army

a) Causes of New Imperialism. p. 266 -268
The scramble for Africa =
partition of Africa
from
1880
to
1900
Troublespots in 1890’s =
in Africa

1896
Italian army defeated at Adowa (Ethiopia) – forced to acknowledege
Ethiopa's independence
• Anglo-French war
in Sudan
in 1898, British victory.’.French gave up claims
land along the Nile
• Anglo-Boer War
1899 - 1901
over control of gold fields in
Transvaal


British soldiers during the Anglo Boer War
in the Transvaal
• 1895-1905 International rivalry in
China

European, American and Japanese
businesses were competing to get
contracts
for
mining rights
and
railway construction .
• Russia wanted control over
Manchuria and Kore
a, Japan also interested in
Korea
• Japan won victory over China 1894-5 .’. Russia alarmed, Japan abandoned expansionist aims.
• Russia .’. built railway across
Manchuria
, got contract for Liaotung peninsular and
Port Arthur
.
• Other powers: “spheres of influence” =Germany - East China, Britaini -
central China
, France –
south China
. Anti foreigner riots, e.g:
Boxer rebellion
= 7 week
seige of foreign embassies
in Peking. International force marched on Peking. Britain and USA now opted for open- door policy i.e. foreign powers would give up demand for
exclusive rights
in their
spheres of influence
.
• Britain obtained more economic concessions in
Manchuria
• Russo-Japanese war 1894 = Japanese victory: occupied
Korea
, Port Arthur and destroyed
Russian fleet
. Korea became Japanese sphere of influence and Russia lost possibility of dominating
northern China
.

The Triple Alliance
Main concern was the
security
of German Empire through
peace
.

- Reduced friction in the
Balkans
by maintaining relations with
Russia an Austria
.
-
Dual Alliance
with Austria: mutual help in case of attack from Russia

- 1882 Triple Alliance:
Germany, Austria, Italy

- 1887 B signed
Reinsurance
Treaty with
Russia
to prevent Russia from allying with
France

- .’. kept France isolated, agreements with Austria-Hungary and Russia, good terms with Britain

- = security and
20 years
of peace for Germany.

Bismarck successor Caprivi:

- Rejected Russia’s request for renewal of
Reinsurance treaty
-
1890
Anglo-German agreement: Germany got
Heligoland
, gave up rights in favour of Britain of
Zanzibar
and
East Africa

- France wanted a specific alliance with
Russia
against
Germany

- Russia wanted a general agreement against
Britain
.’. 2 separate
agreements

- 1891
anti- British
political intent . Russia and France wld hv common imperial policy

-
1892
military convention, mutual support in case of attack from
Germany
.

- Germany faced a war on
two fronts
(agst
France and Russia
)

Britain did not want a formal agreement with
Germany
.
By 1896 Anglo-German relations
deteriorated
. Kaiser William sent a telegram to the Boer President,
Kruger
supporting
independence
from Britain.


President Paul Kruger
British uniform @ beginning of war
British uniform @ end of war
- Weltpolitik =
world policy
. Emphasis on
overseas expansion
.
- William wanted Germany to be a
world power
. :
- aims =
1. Reinforce
navy
, creating a strong battle fleet
2. Creation of Central Africa Empire including
Congo
(belonging to Belgium),
Angola and Mozambique
(belonging to Portugal).
3. European economic zone including
Austria-Hungary
, the
Balkan states
,
Ottoman Empire
.
- three unrelated projects with
no coherence
amng them.

f) British policy 1898-1902
- Germany’s fleet seen as
challenge
.’. Britain began a
ship building programme
.
- In Germany, Anglophobia reached its height during the Anglo-Boer war. British public was anti-German.
To control Russia’s expansionist policy in China, Britain signed the 1902
Anglo-Japanese Alliance

- Germany ready to cause crisis over
Morocco
becoming French
sphere of influence
-
King
William II landed at
Tangiers
to maintain its independence from
France.
-
Germany
demanded an international conference to discuss the question of
Morocco
. Real aim = to cancel
Anglo-French entente
- The conference met in 1906 at Algeciras.
Britain
sided with France. Only
Austria
supported Germany. France ended up by controlling Moroccan
economy and the police
- The Moroccan crisis strengthened the
British
friendship with France = basic policy of Britain’s new
liberal policy
under Earl Grey.

- Grey considered Germany
a threat
’. needed to strengthen
relations with Russia
- 1906 beginning of
Anglo-Russian
agreement on
Persia, Tibet, Afghanistan
same problematic areas as today
- Persia divided into :North -
Russian zone
, south -
British zone
, neutral zone separating
Russian and British zone
.
- In Tibet and
Afghanistan
, both imperial powers wld accept the presence of each other.

Germany's main ally was
Austria-Hungary
The Balkans
- *** Geography The Balkan Peninsula named after the
mountain range
is a SOUTH EAST EUROPEAN region.
Countries belonging to The Balkans are commonly considered to be
Albania, Bosnia Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Kosovo, Macedonia, Montenegro
. Partially:
Greece, Serbia, Croatia Romania, Slovenia, Turkey
.
Most countries: under Ottoman rule during Middle Age, .’. significant
Muslim
population.
Today = largest religion is Orthodox Christianity (e.g.Greece), followed by Catholic Christianity and
Islam
.
- Agreement between
Austria-Hungary and Russia
in 1897 allowed peace in the Balkans for
10 years
- Beginning of new century, Serbs (under Austria-Hungary ) wanted to unite all Serbs in an independent
Greater Serbia
.’. wanted to unite Serbs around the Habsburg Empire and in Bosnia-Herzegovina (still
Turkish
but administered by
Austria-Hungary
).
- 1903 in Serbia, pro-Austrian Serbian dynasty overthrown by Russia. After failure in China against
Japanese
, Russia wanted her
warships
to hv access from the
Black Sea
to the
Mediterranean
via the straits.
- 1908 secret meeting between
Russian
foreign minister and Austro-Hungarian foreign minister . Austrian minster wanted to annex Bosnia- Herzegovina.
- New Regime in Turkey = Young Turks wanted revival of
Ottoman
Empire. 1 aim = restoring
Bosnia
to Turkish rule. .’. Young Turks agst
Bosnia's
annexation to Austria and agst Serbia’s
Greater Serbia
plan.
- Russian foreign Minister secretly agreed to Austria’s annexation of
Bosnia
, in return for passage of Russian War ships passing from Black Sea to Mediterranean via
the straits
The German gunboat "Panther"
Germany's attitude in Agadir 1911
d)
The Balkan Wars
p. 279
- 1911 Italy to colonize
Tripoli
(today’s Libya) went to war agst
Turkey
. Italy won war.
- Italian victory encouraged expansionist ambition of small
Balkan
states.
- The Balkan League made up of.
Serbia , Bulgaria, Greecer, Montenegro
went to war agst
Turkey
. Turkey lost the war and her European territories except
Constantinople.
- Bulgaria then attacked
Serbia
. Greece, Romania and Turkey sided with
Serbi
a in the Second Balkan War agst Bulgaria, who lost her territories obtained in the
First Balkan war
.

Results of Balkan Wars. p. 280
1. Turkey had lost the majority of her
European
territories.
2. Sought for protector =
Germany
.
3. Bulgaria weak
4. Austria-Hungary wanted to create an independent Albania to stop Serbia having outlet on Adriatic sea. Austria- Hungary threatened war and Albania became an independent state.
5. Serbia had doubled her population - seemed to obtain her ambition: creating a Greater Serbia.
6.
Austro-Hungarian
leaders wanted to defeat
Serbia
in order to maintain the
Habsburg Empire

The Balkans before the Balkan war 1912
The Balkans after 1912 and the defeat Turkey

THE JULY CRISIS (1914
) p. 281

THE JULY CRISIS (1914)
a) The Sarajevo assassination p.281
Why did Francis Ferdinand’s assassination lead to war?
-28th June
1914
Archduke Francis Ferdinand, heir to the
Austro-Hungarian
Empire, visited
Sarajevo
in
Bosnia
- Knowing of the visit in advance,
Serbian terrorists
had time to plan assassination
-
Bosnian
were also in Sarajevo, looking for an opportunity
to kill Francis Ferdinand
.
- First terrorist attack on Francis Ferdinand’s car
failed
.
- Due to a wrong turning of the car, Gavrilo Princ̆ip by chance had opportunity to shoot at
Francis Ferdinand and his wife
.
- Princ̆ip was Bosnian, .’. an
Austro-Hungarian
subject, but it was suspected that
Serbia
had encouraged and armed the terrorists.
- The assassination = the reason for
Austria-Hungary
to attack
Serbia
b)
The blank cheque
p.281

5-6 July,
Germany
gave full support to
Austria-Hungary
agst
Serbia
; support known as the
blank cheque
.
- However, Germany (as well as the rest of Europe) did not expect
world war.
Why did Austria-Hungary take so much time to act?
p. 282
-Austria-Hungary could not prove that the
Serbian government
was involved in the assassination.
- Austrians could not persuade
Hungarian ministers
to approve a military action until
16th July
-Between 20-23 July = a state visit by F
rench President
to Russia. Austria-Hungary did not want the
Russian and French leaders
to plan together .
Habsburg governmen
t waited for the end of the visit to act.

c) The Ultimatum p. 282
-23 July,
Austria Hungary
presents ultimatum to
Serbia
= 10 demands to be accepted within
48 hours
- Serbia’s conciliatory reply, however refused the main demand, i.e. to let
Habsburg officials
into Serbia to take part in the
inquest
for Francis Ferdinand’s assassination.
- Russia, to maintain her position in the Balkans, decided to back
Serbia
with the excuse that a fellow Slav State was under attack.
-Since
Serbia
had not unconditionally accepted the ultimatum,Austria mobilised
its army
.


d) The worsening of the crisis p.282
-
Russia
began mobilising her army to support
Serbia
-
Grey
proposed an international conference to resolve the crisis,
Germany
and
Austria-Hungary
refused
the appeals
- 28th July
Austria-Hungary
declared war on
Serbia
- 28th July
Russia
partial mobilisation of her army was to serve as a deterrant for
Austria
- The Tsar,
Nicholas II
, sent telegram to the Kaiser,
William
appealing for his help to stop the war.
- The
German amabassador
made it clear that even partial mobilisation of the
Russian
army wld provoke
German
mobilisation.
-
Russia
@ this point cld only mobilise her army completely,
France
supported
Russia
.
Russia
and
France
still hoped for peace negotiations.


-Germany demanded that
Russia
cease military actions agst
Germany
and
Austria-Hungary
within
12
hrs.
-In absence of a reply
Germany
declared war on
Russia
on
1st August
.
-
Germany
asked France to be neutral. Not receiving this promise,
Germany
declared war on France on
3rd August
1914

e)
War
p. 284

-von Schlieffen, chief of
General
Staff, faced a two front war (west against
France
, East against
Russia
).
- planned a massive attack agst France, counting on Russia’s slowness to move her troops westward.
- Once
France
had been defeated,
German
troops cld be transferred to the Eastern front.
- The
French
assumed that
Germany
wld attack on the frontier betwn
France
and
Germany
.
- Instead,
Schlieffen
planned to go into
Belgium
and attack
FRanc
e from the undefended
French
border
- The
German
army was to march into Northern
France
and encircle
Paris
.
- Then
German
army wld attack
French
army from the rear.

The Schlieffen Plan
p. 283
Declaring War! p. 284
-
Belgium
refused to let
German
troops pass through
Belgium
, so
Germany
occupied
Belgium
- The
British
government agreed that
Britain
shld fight
Germany
to defend
Belgium
-
Britain
demanded the withdrawl of
German
troops from
Belgium
. The ultimatum was disregarded so
Britain
declared war on
Germany
on 4th August.
-6th August
Austria-Hungary
declared war on
Russia
, 12th August
Britain
and
France
declared war on
Austria-Hungary
.
-
Italy
afraid of the
British
fleet, found excuses not to honour the
Triple Alliance
commitments.

1) Germany p. 284
a)aggressive
weltpolitik
aligned
Britain
,
France
,
Russia
agst
Germany
b) the “
BLANK CHEQUE
to Austria-Hungary meant that
Germany
was prepared to risk war. (p. 286)
c) in 1914
Germany
felt encircled while
Russia
was getting stronger (p. 285)
d)
Germany
rejected
Britain’s
proposal for a conference of powers in 1914 to prevent war
e) With the
Schlieffen
plan and Belgium’s invasion,
Germany
provoked
Britain
into war.

2) Austria
a)
Habsburg
government exaggerated
Serbian
threat,
Serbians
were only 1/10 of
Austro-Hungarian
population
b) A rapid strike agst
Serbia
might hv averted war
c)
Austria
was the first power to resort to force by attacking
Serbia
.

3) Russia
a) Did not restrain
Serb/ Slav
nationalism
b)
Russia
’s promise to support
Serbia
made
Serbia
reject
Austria's
ultimatum


Which country was most to blame for the war?
IT SEEMS UNLIKELY THAT ANY COUNTRY PLANNED OR WANTED A GENERAL WAR. ALL CLAIMED THEY WERE FIGHTING A WAR OF SELF-DEFENSE. ALL GOT IT WRONG. HAD EUROPEAN LEADERS REALISED THE HORRORS THAT LAID AHEAD, THEY SURELY WOULD NOT HAVE ACTED AS THEY DID IN 1914.
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