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Soil Remediation Efforts in Kuwait
Transcript of Soil Remediation Efforts in Kuwait
CORRE-ARES1, BioGenesis, and ZEROS are Contenders.
... And Decision 258 (2005) Paves the way
The amount of oil to be reclaimed in Kuwait is at least ten times greater than the amount of the oil from the BP spill in the Gulf of Mexico.
- Mohsen Amiran,
CEO of BioGenesis
Kuwait Oil Co. Launches Bidding Process
Who will Clean up the Oil Lakes in Kuwait?
United Nations Compensation Committee
2005 - Follow Up Programme provides oversight, specifically "F" claims. Ensures funds are spent on conducting environmental remediation activities in a transparent and appropriate manner
Funded by claimant governments. (Iran, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, & Kuwait)
2006 - By UNCC request, Kuwait established KNFP
2007-2008 KNFP failed in their efforts to start implementing Kuwait Environmental Remediation Program (KERP)
2011 - KNFP requested KISR take over technical management and supervision of KERP (KISR-KERP)
Oct. 2013 - KOC opens up bidding process for prequalified soil remediation companies for field demonstration by 12/1/13
Wednesday, April 23, 2014
Vol XCIII, No. 311
Gulf War 1990 - 1991
Kuwait Oil Wells Set Ablaze!
August 2, 1990 Iraq invades Kuwait
UN's deadline for Iraqi withdrawal passed on Jan. 15, 1991 which initiated Operation Desert Storm
6 days later... the retreating Iraqi troops retaliated by bombing one of the largest Kuwaiti oil fields;
Up to 798 oil wells set on fire.
Fires burned for about 8 months
Lea Carol Owen,
Between Iraq and a Hard Place: The UN Compensation Commission and Its Treatment of Gulf War Claims
, 31 Vand. J. Transnat'l L. 499 (March 1998)
Jessica E. Seacor, Environmental Terrorism: Lessons From the Oil Fires of Kuwait, 10 Am. U.J. Int’l L. & Pol’y 481 (Fall 1994).
Francis E. McGovern, Dispute System Design: The United Nations Compensation Commission, 14 Harv. Negot. L. Rev. 171 (Winter 2009).
Cymie R. Payne & Peter H. Sand,
Gulf War Reparations and the UN Compensation Commission Environmental Liability
, (Oxford University Press 2011).
Hans Van Houtte, et al.,
Post-War Restoration of Property Rights under International Law Volume 1: Institutional Features and Substantive Law
54-64 (Cambridge University Press 2008).
Comprehensive Assessment of Soil Remediation Project in Kuwait
Soil Remediation Efforts in Kuwait
Post War Damage:
Over 300 oil lakes covering 49 sq kilometers consisting of 60 million barrels of oil
UXO's still hidden beneath oil lakes
Seeped into fresh water aquifers
40-60 million tons of contaminated soil/sludge - covers 114 sq km of desert
5-6 Million Barrels of Oil burned per day ($90 million worth of oil revenue/day)
Smoke plumes stretched over 800 miles causing thermal inversion
Creation: Security Council of the UN under Resolution 687 on April 3, 1991
Purpose: process and pay claims arising from Iraqi invasion of Kuwait in 1990
“The [UNCC] is not a court or an arbitral tribunal before which the parties appear; it is a political organ that performs an essentially fact-finding function of examining claims, verifying their validity, evaluating losses, assessing payments and resolving disputed claims. It is only in this last respect that a quasi-judicial function may be involved.”
UN Security Council Resolutions
687 - Most extensive resolution which reaffirmed Iraq's liability for environmental damage, & created UNCC Mandate
692 - created fund commission to administer the fund
Together with 1483, 1546, 1956, Report of the Secretary-General (2 May 1991) established UNCC, its jurisdiction, policy, and its financing
Structure of UNCC
Categories of Claims
- Individual "departure" claims
- Individual losses suffered from
serious personal injury or from death.
- All types of individual loss up
- Individual losses over $100k
- Corporate claims
- Government claims
Payment of Claims as of Jan. 2014
By: Erin Clifft & Charmaine Voorhees