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Mustafa Kemal Atatürk

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el guo

on 10 November 2014

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Transcript of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk

Emerging as a military hero at the Dardanelles in 1915, he became the charismatic leader of the Turkish national liberation struggle in 1919.
He blazed across the world scene in the early 1920s as a triumphant commander who crushed the invaders of his country.
Following a series of impressive victories against all odds, he led his nation to full independence.
He put an end to the antiquated Ottoman dynasty whose tale had lasted more than six centuries - and created the Republic of Turkey in 1923, establishing a new government truly representative of the nation's will.

As President for 15 years, until his
death in 1938, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk
introduced a broad range of swift and
sweeping reforms - in the political,
social, legal, economic, and cultural
spheres - virtually unparalleled
in any other country.
His achievements in Turkey are an enduring monument to Atatürk. Emerging nations admire him as a pioneer of national liberation. The world honors his memory as a foremost peacemaker who upheld the principles of humanism and the vision of a united humanity. Tributes have been offered to him through the decades by such world statesmen as lloyd George, Churchill, Roosevelt, Nehru, de Gaulle, Kennedy, and countless others. It is fitting that there should be high praise for Atatürk, an extraordinary leader of modern times, who said in 1933: "I look to the world with an open heart full of pure feelings and friendship".
He was born in 1881 in Salonika, then an
Ottoman city, now in Greece.
His father Ali Riza, a customs official
turned lumber merchant, died when
Mustafa was still a boy.
His mother Zubeyde raised him and his sister.
First enrolled in a traditional religious school,
in 1893, he entered a military high school
On May 19, 1919, Mustafa Kemal Pasha landed in the Black Sea port of Samsun to start the War of Independence. In defiance of the Sultan's government, he rallied a liberation army in Anatolia and convened the Congress of Erzurum and Sivas which established the basis for the new national effort under his leadership. On April 23, 1920, the Grand National Assembly was inaugurated. Mustafa Kemal Pasha was elected to its Presidency.
In mid-October, Ankara became the capital of the new Turkish State.
On October 29, the Republic was proclaimed and Mustafa Kemal Pasha was unanimously elected President of the Republic
Atatürk married Latife Hanim in early 1923. The marriage ended in divorce in 1925.

He created a new political and legal system, abolished the Caliphate and made both government and education secular, gave equal rights to women, changed the alphabet
In 1934, when the surname law was adopted,
the national parliament gave him the name "Atatürk" (Father of the Turks).

On November 10, 1938, following an illness of a few months,
The national liberator and the Father of modern Turkey died. But his legacy to his people and to the world endures.

Mustafa Kemal Ataturk and the Six arrows of Kemalism
Republicanism:

The Kemalist reforms represent a political revolution; a change from the multinational Ottoman Empire to the establishment of the nation state of Turkey and the realization of national identity of modern Turkey. Kemalism only recognizes a Republican regime for Turkey. Kemalism believes that it is only the republican regime which can best represent the wishes of the people.

The Kemalist reforms represent a political revolution; a change from the multinational Ottoman Empire to the establishment of the nation state of Turkey and the realization of national identity of modern Turkey. Kemalism only recognizes a Republican regime for Turkey. Kemalism believes that it is only the republican regime which can best represent the wishes of the people.

Populism:

In the official explanation given to the principle of populism it was stated that Kemalism was against class privileges and class distinctions and it recognized no individual, no family, no class and no organization as being above others.
Kemalist ideology was, in fact, based on supreme value of Turkish citizenship. A sense of pride associated with this citizenship would give the needed psychological spur to the people to make them work harder and to achieve a sense of unity and national identity.

Secularism:

Kemalist secularism did not merely mean separation of state and religion, but also the separation of religion from educational, cultural and legal affairs. It meant independence of thought and independence of institutions from the dominance of religious thinking and religious institutions. Thus, the Kemalist revolution was also a secularist revolution. Many Kemalist reforms were made to bring about secularism, and others were realized because secularism had been achieved.
The Kemalist principle of secularism did not advocate atheism. It was not an anti-God principle. It was a rationalist, anti-clerical secularism. The Kemalist principle of secularism was not against an enlightened Islam, but against an Islam which was opposed to modernization.

Reformism:

One of the most important principles that Atatürk formulated was the principle of reformism or revolutionism. This principle meant that Turkey made reforms and that the country replaced traditional institutions with modern institutions. It meant that traditional concepts were eliminated and modern concepts were adopted.
Statism:

Kemal Atatürk made clear in his statements and policies that Turkey's complete modernization was very much dependent on economic and technological development.
The principle of statism was interpreted to mean that the state was to regulate the country's general economic activity and the state was to engage in areas where private enterprise was not willing to do so, or where private enterprise had proved to be inadequate, or if national interest required it. In the application of the principle of statism, however, the state emerged not only as the principle source of economic activity but also as the owner of the major industries of the country.

Nationalism:

The Kemalist revolution was also a nationalist revolution.
Kemalist nationalism was not racist. It was meant to preserve the independence of the Republic of Turkey and also to help the Republic's political development. It was a nationalism which respected the right to independence of all other nations. It was a nationalism with a social content. It was not only anti-imperialist, but it was also against the rule of a dynasty or of any particular social class over Turkish society. Kemalist nationalism believes in the principle that the Turkish state is an indivisible whole comprising its territory and people.

The founder of the Turkish Republic and its first President, stands as a towering figure of the 20th Century.
Among the great leaders of history,
few have achieved so much in so short period, transformed the life of a nation as decisively,
and given such profound inspiration to the world at large.
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