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Urbanization

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Yue Bai

on 6 December 2013

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Transcript of Urbanization

Urbanization
design by Dóri Sirály for Prezi
Table of Content
Urbanization Definition
The Causes of Urbanization
Urbanization Progress
Comparison between MEDCs and LEDCs
Impacts of Urbanization
Solutions and Case Study
Conclusion
Urbanization Progress
c
Impacts of Urbanization
Social Effect

Economic Effect

Environmental Effect

Conclusion
Even through urbanization is beneficial to our society and economic growth, it is a two sided blade. It must be carefully planned, increasing new policy to restrict any activity violating the principle of creating a sustainable city.

What is Urbanization
Urbanization is the process in which the number of people living in cities increases compared with the number of people living in rural areas.
A country is considered to be urbanized when over 50% of its population lives in urban places.

Causes of Urbanization
Rural to Urban Migration-result of push and pull factors
Natural Increase
Red text means it is specially in LEDC

Red text means it is specially in MEDC

Social Effects
Economic Effects
Environmental Effects
Rapid Urbanization
Developed Regions and
the Less Developed Regions
Significant differences in urban population change between the more developed regions and the less developed regions

Modernization and Industrialization
Pull people to cities at the same time that they push people from rural homes.

Farm living depends on unpredictable environmental conditions,survival is difficult. In modern times, industrialization of agriculture has negatively affected the economy of small- and middle-sized farms and strongly reduced the size of the rural labor market. Which is called “rural flight”

 More and more people leave villages and farms to live in cities, urban growth results

I.E(Chicago and Mumbai)

Comparison Between MEDCs and LEDCs
Developed countries

- The United States, Japan, Germany, Britain, etc…

Main characteristics
Start early
High level of urbanization
Counter urbanization phenomenon

Developing Countries
- China, Brazil, India, Russia, Thailand, etc…

Main characteristics
A late start but development rapidly
Lower level of urbanization
Unreasonable development of urbanization

The Development of Urbanization in Developed Countries
Generally speaking, the urbanization can be divided into 4 stages in developed countries.
Urbanization- started in the 1950s, it is a period with economic growth rapidly and with fastest growing urban population in developed countries.
Suburbanization- started in the 1960s, the outward growth of town and cities to engulf surrounding villages and rural area.
Counter urbanization- A process in 1970s to 1980s that involving the movement of population away from inner urban areas to new town, new estate, rural-urban fringe, etc…
Re-urbanization- the re-urbanization appeared in the 1980s to 1990s, it is meaning the counter urbanization was terminated, the population densities in rural area or town is below to the urban area. The population centralizes to the city again.

The Development of Urbanization in Developing Countries
There are 3 main characteristics of the development of urbanization in developing countries
Started late but develop rapidly: started in 1950s, after the Second World War, the urban population increase rapidly, the growth rate even exceed the developed countries, with 4. 68 percent per year (1950-1960).
Lower level of urbanization: because the base of rural population are more than the urban population, the level of urbanization in developing countries is lower than developed countries.
Unreasonable development: the main reasons are the deformation of the economic development, rapid population growth and rural labor surplus, etc…

Solutions and Case Study
MEDCs LEDCs
Inequalities(housing, unemployment)
Redevelopment of inner city 
Traffic congestion and air pollution in town
Park and ride scheme
Congestion charging schemes - London
Car pooling – USA
Permit holder parking
Out of town retail centres

MEDCs- Solutions
Ultimate solution to Urbanization
Balance between Environment, Economic and Social, a sustainable city

Key feature of a sustainable city
Resources and services in the city are accessible to all
Public transport is seen as a viable alternative to cars
Public transport is safe and reliable
Walking and cycling is safe
Wherever possible, renewable resources are used instead of non-renewable resources
Waste is seen as a resource and is recycled wherever possible
New homes are energy efficient
There is access to affordable housing
Community links are strong and communities work together to deal with issues such as crime and security
Cultural and social amenities are accessible to all
A sustainable city will grow at a sustainable rate and use resources in a sustainable way.

LEDCs - Solution
Improving shanty towns
local communities, charities and government departments
improvements in the residents’ quality of life.
Schemes of improvement
Site and services scheme
Self help scheme
Rural investment
Case Study - Curitiba
Capital city of the Parana state in Brazil.
With nearly 2 million people living here
Urban plan since the 1968
Social, economic and environmental programs.

Case Study - Curitiba
Creating and retaining parks and green space beside the rivers .
Urban growth is restricted to corridors of growth
A bus rapid transit system operates with triple section bendy bus
"Lighthouses of Knowledge "
A green exchange programme
COHAB, the public housing programme 

Natural Increase

Natural increase = birth rate –death rate

The people that migrate into towns and cities tend to be young resulting in high birth rate

Falling death rates due to improved medical care means more babies are born than people dying, further increasing the urban population

Rural to Urban Migration
Group members:
Yue Bai 203552
Ke Chen 203580
Noma Zemer 700390
Guo Chen 700695
Wai Ching 203518

Presentation date:December 6, 2013

Case Study, Masdar City in Abu Dhabi
Ensuring a low carbon footprint
Being completely powered by renewable energy.
Reducing waste
Leading research and education
Design the city, create a comfortable environment
Educating Sustainability
Full pedestrianisation within the city
Jocelyn,Collins.(2001) Urbanisation. Retrieved from http://www.botany.uwc.ac.za/envfacts/facts/urbanisation.htm
Slideshare.com.(2010). The causes of urbanisation. Retrieved from:http://www.slideshare.net/tudorgeog/l2-the-causes-of-urbanisation-5695379
BBC.UK(2013). Population change and structure. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/geography/population/population_change_structure_rev2.shtml
BBC.UK(2013). Urbanisation in LEDCs . Retrieved from http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/geography/urban_environments/urbanisation_ledcs_rev1.shtml
Potsiou Chryssy(2010) Rapid Urbanization and Mega Cities:The Need for Spatial Information Management,retrieved fromhttp://www.fig.net/pub/figpub/pub48/figpub48.pdf
Boundless(2010), the process of urbanization,retrieved from https://www.boundless.com/sociology/understanding-population-and-urbanization/urbanization-and-the-development-of-cities/the-process-of-urbanization/
Potsiou Chryssy(2010) Rapid Urbanization and Mega Cities:The Need for Spatial Information Management,retrieved fromhttp://www.fig.net/pub/figpub/pub48/figpub48.pdf

Reference
Boundless(2010), the process of urbanization,retrieved from https://www.boundless.com/sociology/understanding-population-and-urbanization/urbanization-and-the-development-of-cities/the-process-of-urbanization/
BAIDU.com. (2009)Different urbanization between developed countries and developing countries. Retrieved from http://zhidao.baidu.com/question/102422748.ht
Ji Hyun, (2010, NOV 15). Types of Urbanization [web log post]. Retrieved from http://geojihyun.wordpress.com/2010/11/15/types-of-urbanization/
Dimitre Grozdev(2011, April 11). Retrieved from http://www.csub.edu/kej/documents/economic_rsch/2011-04-11.pdf
DOCIU,M. (2012). The Socio-Economic Impact of Urbanization. International Journal of Academic Research in Accounting, Finance and Management Sciences, Volume 2, Special Issue 1 (2012), pp. 47-52. Retrieved from http://www.hrmars.com/admin/pics/1006.pdf
Wan, GH. (2013, January 23). Why urbanization may benefit the environment. Business Times Singapore. Retrieved from http://www.adb.org/news/op-ed/why-urbanization-may-benefit-environment
BBC.UK (2013). Urbanisation in MEDCs.  http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/geography/urban_environments/urbanisation_medcs_rev1.shtml.
BBC UK. (2013). Urbanisation in LEDCs. Available: http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/geography/urban_environments/urbanisation_ledcs_rev1.shtml. 
UPSC. (July 2013). Urbanization: A Problem or a Solution? . Available: http://upsc-civil-services-ias.blogspot.ch/2013/07/urbanization-problem-or-solution.html
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