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Group presentation: Lev S. Vygotsky
Transcript of Group presentation: Lev S. Vygotsky
EDP 4004 Learning Theorist Assignment:
Lev S. Vygotsky Authors:
Lisa Mark Vygotsky is known
for being an educational psychologist
with a sociocultural theory.
His theory is referred to as
" social constructivism. " This theory emphasize on the role of social interaction and student's cultural heritage in regards to the development of cognition.
It suggests that student's development and how they view of the world depends upon their interaction with others and what they were taught within their culture. 4 Major Principles: 1. Children construct their own knowledge.
Learners create their own representation of new information.
2. Development can not be separated from its social context.
Social context influence more than attitude and belief but also influence how and what students think. Different cultures experience life differently. As a result, it effects one's perception, thinking and memory.
3. Learning can lead development.
Teaching creates learning process that eventually leads to development.
4. Language plays a central role in mental development.
Language is passed from one generation to the next.
It is the mechanism for thinking. Applied Principles: Zone of Proximity Development (ZPD):
Definition: Range of task students cannot perform independently but can perform with the help and guidance from others.
Promote cognitive growth.
Increase learning and problem- solving abilities.
Constantly changes as students master challenging tasks over time.
Reminds teachers of how students can reach higher level learning goals with adult support and guidance. Student's cognitive development is developed best through social interaction with others. Allow students to play and interact with each other. Play is a source of cognitive and social development for students, which help creates a zone of proximal development.
Since students learn much more through interaction, the curriculum needs to be designed to emphasize the interaction between learners and learning task.
Teachers can incorporate different strategies, such as cooperative learning, to promote teamwork as students work together to complete the task.
Engage students in various educational activities. This gives them the opportunity to learn through the experience of others.
With the appropriate help and guidance from adults, students can perform tasks that they are incapable of completing independently.
With the appropriate materials and accommodations, students are able to complete various tasks.
Assessment methods targets the level of actual development and the level of potential development. This helps teachers to see what students are capable of doing on their own and what they can do when given assistance. Differentiated
Instructional Strategies Scaffolding
Use of Technology
Cooperative Learning Groups
Out of school experience: Field Trips Strategy 1: Scaffolding Scaffolding is an instructional technique designed to provide support to learners on building prior knowledge to acquire new concepts in order to perform challenging tasks.
Referred as a concept in Zone of Proximal Development.
Scaffolding is created from direct instructions, observations, and encouragement.
Examples of various forms of scaffolding:
Helping students develop a plan to perform new tasks.
Provide educational tools and technology to make task easier.
Divide challenging task into smaller task.
Ask students questions about task and provide feedback.
Keep students motivated and remind them what their goal is in performing the task. Lev Semyonovich Vygotsky Lev Vygotsky was born in Western Russia (Belorussia) on November 17, 1896.
He grew up in a middle class Jewish family home.
He graduated with a Law degree at Moscow University.
His first big research project was in 1925.
During the 20th century, he was known as one of the most famous Russian psychologist.
He had no formal training in psychology when he began the Vygotskian approach to psychology.
He died of Tuberculosis in 1934, at the age of 38.
He wrote numerous articles and books on his theories and psychology, but his works was not revealed until after the Cold War.
Today, Vygotsky’s ideas are still presented and used in education. Social Interaction:
Definition: Molding behaviors and beliefs so students can fit into cultural groups.
Plays a crucial role in the process of cognitive development.
Students learn by interacting and modeling others.
Students learn on a social level then on an individual level. More Knowledgeable Others (MKO):
Definition: Refers to anyone who has a better understanding or a higher ability level than the learner in regards to a particular task or concept.
MKO can be considered as teachers, parents, coaches, professional experts, other students or peers, and even computers. Strategy 5: Out of School Experience- Field Trips Strategy 2: Use of technology Strategy 3:
Cooperative Learning Groups Strategy 4: Modeling Applying Vygotksy's Principles into the classroom There are various types of technology incorporated in classrooms to promote academic success.
Technology help accommodate different types of learners.
Assistive technology give students with disabilities an opportunity to access and complete activities and task.
Technology is used in motivating students to learn.
It promotes and deepen students learning in preparation for the future.
It increase student's involvement and participation in classroom.
It help students acquire new skills.
It help teachers gather data and monitor student's progress.
Technology makes learning more interesting and fun. Cooperative learning groups allow students to cooperative work together with peers and share ideas to complete a task.
It promotes social skills, self- efficacy, and friendships.
It enhances higher academic achievements.
When students help one another, they provide scaffolding for one another in accomplishing difficult tasks.
Cooperative learning groups increase student's understanding on various subject areas.
It teach students about responsibility and respect for others. Modeling allows students to demonstrate certain behaviors.
Teachers demonstrate tasks while explaining the process as students listen and observe.
It allows students to observe the teachers thought process.
Teacher modeling involves showing and telling students how to break down a task into smaller task.
Modeling requires a step by step method, demonstrating each step in front of the class.
Modeling is great strategy for the different types of learners: tactile/ kinesthetic (seeing & doing), visual (seeing), and auditory(hearing). Field trips give students the opportunity to make connections between school and the real world.
It help students process and synthesize information to deepen their learning.
It also provides students with hands on experience than cannot be completed in the classroom.
Field trips allows students an enjoyable experience outside of school.
It applies a positive, learning experience to education. Levels of ZPD:
•Level 1 – present level of development: what the students is capable of doing without any help from others.
•Level 2 – potential level of development: what the students can be capable of doing with help from others. Instructional Planning Teachers should take student's academic levels, differences, and special needs into consideration when grouping and engaging students in cooperative learning groups.
Teachers need to use effective direct instructions when teaching students with disabilities.
Teachers should use various strategies to promote academic success for all students.
Teachers must provide support, assistance, guidance and feedback to all students.
Teachers must be creative and find ways to incorporate various types of technology to make teaching and learning enjoyable.
Teachers needs have the appropriate materials, tools, and accommodations available for students. References Annenberg Learner. (2013). Teaching strategies: field trips. Retrieved from
Ellis, O. J. (2006). Essentials of Educational Psychology Big ideas to Guide Effective Teaching. New York, NY: Pearson.
Hammond, K. (2013). Teacher modeling as an effective teaching strategy. Retrieved from
Muskingum College. (2013). Lev Semyonovich Vygotsky. Retrieved from
My eCoach. (2013). Lev Vygotsky. Retrieved from
( Muskingum College, 2013) (Ellis, 2006) (Hammond, 2013) (Annenberg Learner,2013) (My eCoach, 2013) (Ellis, 2006)
(Muskingum College, 2013) (Muskingum College, 2013) (My eCoach, 2013)