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The Cold War

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by

Ilan Shoshan

on 14 May 2014

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Transcript of The Cold War

Black sea
USA
The Cold War
USSR
Rivalries between
the two superpowers
- Democracy country
- Many political parties
- Capitalist
- Dictatorship country
- Unique political party
- Communist
After WWII
1945
What future for
Ger
ma
ny

?
Potsdam
conference
The country will
be split in 2 parts
1945
February
Yalta
conference
Yalta, Ukraine
* Big three = USA, USSR, Great Britain
Occupied Berlin
“Germany, within its borders as they existed on December 31, 1937, will be divided for the occupation in three areas, these areas are assigned to each of the three powers, and a special area for Berlin that will be occupied by the three Powers”.
The splitting of
Ger
ma
ny
Yalta
conference
Yalta
conference
Yalta
conference
Yalta
conference
The creation of the
U.N
Based on the "League of Nations"
The UNITED NATIONS
peace and security
friendly relations
international cooperation
encouraging respect for human rights
German reparations
Germany is entirely demilitarized and disarmed
Stalin wants Germany to pay $ 20 billion of which 50% goes to the USSR
aborted because of the consequences of the treaty of Versailles
Soviet forces into front in
Ja
p
an
?
Japan
TOKYO
Hiroshima
Nagasaki
Roosevelt needed help to fight Japan
The Atomic bomb had
not yet been tested
Great Britain ?
Last option :
USSR
Who coud help ?
Churchill would demand more colonies
in return => strategic lands
Yalta
conference
The future of
Poland
Stalin wanted Poland to be under Soviet control
the USA & England were opposed
to it
When Poland was under attack
The British people helped the country
Churchill wanted Poland to be a
free
and independent state.
Stalin didn't agree, but finally decided to hold free elections within the month.
Relations
between the Soviet Union and the Western powers
deteriorated.
End of World War II
The world is
divided

+- The
Capitalist
Block
+- The
Communist
Block
The Morgenthau plan
plan proposed by Henry Morgenthau, the United States Secretary of the Treasury
Germany should be divided into two independent States, one
north
and one
south
North Rhine was to be transformed into an international area, protected by the British Army, and the territories were given to Germany's neighbours
All heavy industries should be destroyed
3 main objectives :
The name "Cold War" was created by the English writer George Orwell.
2 powers > no direct military combat but instead, psychological and indirect confrontations. (proxy* wars)
*proxy = interposed countries (Viet-Nam, ...)
This war is often dated from 1947 to 1991.
New solution accepted :
The Marshall Plan
The Marshall Plan, officially "European Recovery Program", was an American plan to help rebuild Europe after the Second World War.
5 March 1946
9 February 1950
25 June 1950-53
6/9 August 1945
Nuclear tests
Hiroshima
bombing: 6 August 1945
"Little Boy"
The speech of Churchill
During a speech at Westminster College in Fulton, Missouri, Winston Churchill used for the first time the term "Iron Curtain". The former British head of state said :
"From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an iron curtain has descended across the continent".
Although Churchill is no longer Prime Minister, his speech marked the "official" beginning of the Cold War.
The Witch hunt
Ethel and Julius Rosenberg, 35 and 37. They died on the electric chair in Sing Sing Prison, near New York.
The Korean War
South Korea + USA + Western countries
What happened on the
U.S
side
since the division
of the world
Nagasaki
bombing: 9 August 1945
"Fat Man"
th
th
th
5 march 1946
th
th
The Wisconsin Senator, Joseph McCarthy, announced in a speech that he has a list of over 200 people in the State Department that are suspected to be close to the Communist Party.
North Korea + USSR + China
against
1950-53
What happened on the
USSR
side
since the division
of the world
25 February 1948
1 October 1949
29 August 1949
The "Victorious February"
The Communist Party of Prague, with Soviet Union's backing, takes control of the Czechoslovakia's government.
China
Mao Zedong
takes control of Chinese communists during the "Long March" , from 15/10/1934 till 19/10/1935
The "First Lightning"
The RDS-1 was used in the Soviet Union's first nuclear weapon test.
th
th
st
Czechoslovakia becomes a communist country and is definitely on the east side of the iron curtain.
On 21/01/1949, Chiang Kai-shek (the opponent of Mao) resigns from his post as President of the Republic.
On 1/10/1949, Mao officially proclaimed in Beijing
People's Republic of China.
RDS-1 was the first Soviet atomic bomb. Replica of Fat Man. nickname : "
First lightning
"
The Americans called Joe One in reference to Joseph Stalin. It exploded on
29 August 1949
, at Semipalatinsk,Kazakhstan
Start of the nuclear weapons race
1954
1955
1963
1962
1953
1953
The KGB
Establishment of the K.G.B (security agency for the Soviet Union)
J.F.K
John Fitzgerald Kennedy
succeeds to Eisenhower
The Warsaw Pact
The Cuban missile crisis
Eisenhower succeeds to Truman
20/01/1953 --> 20/01/1961
Khrouchtchev succeeds to Stalin
Stalin died the 5/3/1953, after a few days spent into coma, from a cerebral attack.
Eisenhower
Truman
Nikita Khrouchtchev
succeeds to
Stalin
the 14/9/1953
Secret services of the USSR
13/3/1954
20/1/1961 --> 22/11/1963, his
assassination
Treaty between 8 communist States of Central and Eastern Europe in existence during the Cold War. The treaty was established under the initiative of the Soviet Union and signed on
14 May 1955
, in Warsaw.
The Warsaw Pact was in part a Soviet military
reaction to the integration of West Germany into NATO ( North Atlantic Treaty Organization)
in 1955
Members of the Warsaw Pact
Members of the N.A.T.O
Missile launchers in Cuba, set by
USSR
Negotiations to avoid a nuclear war
End of the crisis
The
red phone
Cuba
Fidel Castro in 1959
The landing in the Bay of Pigs
DISASTER
The withdrawal of the missiles on 26 October 1963
The USA removed their missiles from Turkey and Italy in exchange.
1963
1963
1964
1969
J.F.K Assassination
22 Novembre 1963
Léonid Brejnev
Brejnev
succeeds to
Khrouchtchev
the 14 October 1964
The Space conquest
Spoutnik
1 & 2
The Berlin's blockade
Deterioration of relations > Stalin blocks access roads to West Berlin on 24/06/1948
>
The blockade of Berlin

Berlin is now the heart of the confrontation

The USA + allies put up a huge airlift

The blockade will end on 05/12/1949.
Kennedy is
murdered
by
Lee Harvey Oswald
Johnson
succeeds him the same day aboard the Air Force One
The Reconciliation
The two superpowers fear the MAD
"
Mutual assured destruction"
The
red phone
The desire to remove themselves from an arms race more and more expensive
Sino-Soviet split
The United States are engaged in the Vietnam War
Laïka, the first dog in space
Vostok 1
with
Youri Gagarin
First man in space
Apollo 11
lands on the moon with
Neil Armstrong (1969)
First man on the moon
a victory for USA
1969
1974-1989
Richard Nixon
Nixon
succeeds to
Johnson
the 20 january 1969
The Vietnam War
Dismemberment of the Soviet Empire
1954 - 1975
Anti-communists
forces
South Vietnam
United States
South Korea
Australia
Thailand
New Zealand
Kingdom of Laos
Communists
forces
North Vietnam
Khmer Republic
Viet Cong
Khmer Rouge
Pathet Lao
Soviet Union
Nixon
Ford
Carter
Reagan
Mikhaïl
Sergueïevitch Gorbatchev
Brejnev
is succeeded by
Gorbatchev
the 11 March 1985
1983
USA troops overthrow the communist government in Grenada
1986
Russia was missing money
1987
S.A.L.T I
1989
Begginning of the
Soviet Empire's fall
Gorbatchev stopped helping the Soviet neighbours
October 1986 :
Gorbatchev & Reagan
removed all nuclear missiles from Europe
Every nuclear missile is removed from Europe, officially.
Poland and Hungary are free from Communism
9 November 1989 :
Berlin wall
falls down
China stays communist
The End
The plan was very criticized
because of the effects of the Treaty of Versailles
The plan was aborted
Kennedy has fooled Khrouchtchev
--> the missiles were removed in 1963.
1969
1989
Full transcript