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Solar Furnace 25.9.11
Transcript of Solar Furnace 25.9.11
A solar furnace is a system that combines a heliostat, a flat mirror that will orient itself toward the sun in order to reflect all the sun's available energy, and a parabolic mirror. The purpose of the solar furnace is to concentrate the maximum amount of radiation available in the focus of a parabolic mirror and to analyze the radiation's distribution within the thermal target.
The system has been designed in order to reflect the sun's irradiance to a 1.15m diameter parabolic reflector and in order to fit the place assigned on the roof.
The system sustains wind load and the load due to its weight.
Optical analysis has been done in order to see the effects of tracker's errors in order to set a minimum precision.
The system includes a cooling system in order to remove all the heat entering the thermal target.
The first step in the development was to find
the size of the flat mirror using basic
trigonometry, sun’s vector and angles
The next step after the size of the flat mirror
was to design the base support and to find the material
40x40 Typ C01-1
Tél: +41 55 251 58 58
Material :Alloy 6063
Profile surface=7.29 cm2
The goal was to find the highest possible
stability and for this reason solidworks analyses
have been done
The next step was to decide the best way to hold the mirror.
Offset due to different axis rotation
Enlarge the frame size
Energy losses percentage:
1 - (Cutting Mirror Area / Full Mirror Area)*100=100-83.6=16.4%
It was decided to enlarge the size of the frame but it caused a bigger weight on the tracker
Surface scattering: 1mrad
Surface scattering: 2mrad
Surface scattering: 3 mrad
tracking angles error
In order to study and foresee the results and behavior of optical components of a system we carried out an optical simulation using OptiCAD software
Since the parabolic mirror concentrates all the sun irradiance on the termal target, we had to calculate the flow needed to remove the heat
In order to design the thermal target, we had to take into consideration a few factors as :
Ideal Size Receiver Calculation
In order to calculate the radius of the image, we first need to define the following measures:
• The aperture size D: is the index for amount of energy.
• Focal length F: is the index for image position.
• Rim angle : is the index for image size.
The ideal receiver has dimensions of 10 x 10 mm
The sensor hasn't been placed in the center
of the thermal target. We had to find the position of 30% of the maximum flux value
Heat Power on the Receiver: 830 W Required flow rate for cooling: 0.02 Kg/s Inlet water temperature in the receiver: 318 K Outlet water temperature in the receiver:328 K Flow Average Velocity: 0.84 m/s Convection coefficient : 3205 W/m^2K
Heat Power on the receiver: 830 W Convection coefficient : 11 W/m^2 K Maximum surface temperature: 346 K
The system satisfies environmental conditions, stability under wind load andself weight.
The energy that reaches the thermal target, while taking into account the mirror scattering is 830W.
The acceptable tracking error is 1 mrad.
The system will have an optical efficiency at least 51.18% .
The coolant flow rate required to remove the heat on the receiver is 0.02 kg/s.
Flow average velocity: 0.84 m/s
Maximum surface temperature: 346 K
Advisor: Maya Livshits
The system has been divided in two parts which are the heliostat (on the left side) and the parabolic mirror with a shutter and the thermal target (on the right side).
Wind load analysis on the system
Power :805 W
Power : 683 W
Power : 521 W
Maximal Power :1038 W