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# Solar Furnace 25.9.11

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by

## Michael Weitz

on 30 January 2014

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#### Transcript of Solar Furnace 25.9.11

The Solar Furnace
Objectives
A solar furnace is a system that combines a heliostat, a flat mirror that will orient itself toward the sun in order to reflect all the sun's available energy, and a parabolic mirror. The purpose of the solar furnace is to concentrate the maximum amount of radiation available in the focus of a parabolic mirror and to analyze the radiation's distribution within the thermal target.
Requirements

The system has been designed in order to reflect the sun's irradiance to a 1.15m diameter parabolic reflector and in order to fit the place assigned on the roof.

The system sustains wind load and the load due to its weight.

Optical analysis has been done in order to see the effects of tracker's errors in order to set a minimum precision.

The system includes a cooling system in order to remove all the heat entering the thermal target.
Mechanical design
Optical Analysis
Thermodynamics
Body
Project Development
Mechanical design
The first step in the development was to find
the size of the flat mirror using basic
trigonometry, sun’s vector and angles
Mechanical design
The next step after the size of the flat mirror
was to design the base support and to find the material
Technical data:
40x40 Typ C01-1

From :
KANYA SA
Neuhofstrasse 9
CH-8630 Rüti
Suisse
Tél: +41 55 251 58 58

Material :Alloy 6063
Ix=11.70 cm4
Iy=11.70 cm4
Wx=5.75 cm3
Wy=5.75 cm3
Profile surface=7.29 cm2
Weight=2.0 kg/m
Mechanical design
The goal was to find the highest possible
stability and for this reason solidworks analyses
have been done
Mechanical design
The next step was to decide the best way to hold the mirror.

Problem
Offset due to different axis rotation
Solution
Enlarge the frame size
Mirror cutting
Energy losses percentage:
1 - (Cutting Mirror Area / Full Mirror Area)*100=100-83.6=16.4%
It was decided to enlarge the size of the frame but it caused a bigger weight on the tracker
Mechanical design
displacement analysis
stress analysis
Mechanical design
System's connections
Optical Analysis
Optical Analysis
reflectors scattering
ideal case
Optical Analysis
tracking angles error
azimuth
elevation
In order to study and foresee the results and behavior of optical components of a system we carried out an optical simulation using OptiCAD software
Thermal target
Since the parabolic mirror concentrates all the sun irradiance on the termal target, we had to calculate the flow needed to remove the heat
Thermal target
Cooling system
In order to design the thermal target, we had to take into consideration a few factors as :
Dimension
Cooling
tubes
optics requirement
sensor's position
Thermal target
In order to calculate the radius of the image, we first need to define the following measures:
• The aperture size D: is the index for amount of energy.
• Focal length F: is the index for image position.
• Rim angle : is the index for image size.
Thermal target
The ideal receiver has dimensions of 10 x 10 mm
Thermal target
The sensor hasn't been placed in the center
of the thermal target. We had to find the position of 30% of the maximum flux value
Thermal target
Mechanical design
HTF: Water
Heat Power on the Receiver: 830 W Required flow rate for cooling: 0.02 Kg/s Inlet water temperature in the receiver: 318 K Outlet water temperature in the receiver:328 K Flow Average Velocity: 0.84 m/s Convection coefficient : 3205 W/m^2K
Thermal target
Flow analysis
Heat Power on the receiver: 830 W Convection coefficient : 11 W/m^2 K Maximum surface temperature: 346 K
Thermal Analysis
Thermal target
Mechanical Analysis
The system satisfies environmental conditions, stability under wind load andself weight.

Optical Analysis
The energy that reaches the thermal target, while taking into account the mirror scattering is 830W.
The acceptable tracking error is 1 mrad.
The system will have an optical efficiency at least 51.18% .

Thermal analysis
The coolant flow rate required to remove the heat on the receiver is 0.02 kg/s.
Flow average velocity: 0.84 m/s
Maximum surface temperature: 346 K
Conclusion
Ester Raccah
Jeremy Martiano
Michael Weitz
The system has been divided in two parts which are the heliostat (on the left side) and the parabolic mirror with a shutter and the thermal target (on the right side).
Mechanical design
Wind load analysis on the system
Mechanical design
Power :805 W
77%
Power : 683 W
66%
Power : 521 W
50%
21.06 12:00
Maximal Power :1038 W
Full transcript