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Nationalism In His Works-Final
Transcript of Nationalism In His Works-Final
NOLI ME TANGERE
When Dr. Jose Rizal was 26, he published his first novel “Noli Me Tangere” in Belgium in the year 1887 .
It talked about the Spaniard’s arrogance and despicable use of religion to achieve their own desires and rise to power.
It mostly talked about the life of Crisostomo Ibarra, a member of the Insulares (Creoles) social class, and a series of unfortunate events that he encountered through the works of a Franciscan friar, namely Padre Damaso Verdolagas, and by the Spanish conquistadors.
1. SILHOUETTE OF A FILIPINA
- It was popular belief that the silhouette of the woman in the cover of Noli Me Tangere is the unfortunate Maria Clara, Crisostomo Ibarra’s lover.
A MAN IN A CASSOCK WITH HAIRY FEET
- This symbolism at the lower part of the cover is to be a representation for priests using religion in a dirty way, specifically Padre Damaso.
HELMET OF THE GUARDIA CIVIL/CONSTABULARY HELMET
- An obvious take on the arrogance of those in authority.
The cruelties present in the novel best explains the symbol Rizal used in the cover.
- another symbolism for cruelties. It is a representation of Jesus Christ’s scourging before his imminent crucifixion.
A LENGTH OF CHAIN
- Rizal’s representation of slavery and imprisonment.
– One thing comes to mind when bamboo stalks are talked about: Resilience.
- The one that killed the Christ Jesus. It was a representation of suffering and death. It also represent a grave. Magnifies the discrimination towards Filipinos, Chinese Mestizos and Spaniards during this time towards a proper burial.
- A reference to the Olympic torch, it tells everyone the beginning of the defense of honors and the start of proving themselves worthy of victory. Rage and passion are most abundant in this phase. Represents a phrase that could possibly mean everything to every single suffering Filipinos: “The rise of the revolution is now at hand.”
POMELO BLOSSOMS AND LAUREL LEAVES
- They roughly represent faith, honor and fidelity. P0melo blossoms are utilized as loose potpourri or a mixture of dried flower petals and spices used to scent the air. It is commonly used in prayers and cleansing. The laurel leaves, also known as bay leaves, are used as crowns during the Ancient Greek Olympics wherein the best of the best are treated as heroes. Filipinos in this time wants to embody these three virtues that Rizal represented as two plants.
- A unique behavior in sunflowers, known as phototropism, is a motif that has appeared in many ancient myths and is viewed as a symbol of loyalty and constancy. The sunflower's petals have been likened to bright yellow rays of sunshine, which evoke feelings of warmth and happiness. In addition, the sunflower is often associated with adoration and longevity. Rizal’s observation towards the happiness of the Filipinos are, in the Spanish times, are only fulfilled through their giving in and bowing down to the more powerful entity: Spain.
Madaling ipagpalagay na ang isang rebelde (pilibustero) ay lihim na umaakit sa liga ng mga panatiko ng mga prayle at mga paurong nang sa gayon, wala man sa loob na sumunod sa mga panunulsol, ay dapat nilang panigan at paigtingin ang patakarang sumusunod lamang sa iisang layunun; ang maipalaganap ang mga kaisipan ng rebelyon sa kabuuang haba at lawak ng lupain, at mahikayat ang bawat Pilipino sa paniniwalang walang katubusan liban sa seperasyon mula sa inang bayan.
a.) Juan Crisostomo Ibarra y Magsalin – The only son of Don Rafael Ibarra. He is a young and rich Filipino who has studied in Europe for 7 years. He is the fiancé of Maria Clara.
NOLI ME TANGERE
b.) Padre Damaso- a Franciscan friar who had been a parish priest of San Diego for 20 years. A typical of a domineering friar who was arrogant, abusive anti- Filipino. He symbolizes the Spanish friars of Rizal's time.
c.) Padre Salvi - also known in his full name as Bernardo Salví, a young Dominican parish priest of Binondo and a secret admirer of María Clara.
d.) Señor Guevarra – an elderly and kind lieutenant of the Guardian Civil.
e.) Tasio- a philosopher whose ideas are too far ahead of his contemporaries that his townmates call him “Tasio and Lunatic”
f.) Don Tiburcio de Espadaña – a native of Spain, he came to the Philippines as a custom official. He was able to pass as a Doctor of Medicine who treats only patients “off quality”.
g.) Doña Victorina de los Reyes – a native woman who had strong hallucinations of being a superior Spaniard and looks down on her own people as inferior beings. To be more Spanish, she added another “de” to her husband’s surname and thus wanted to be called Dona Victorina de los Reyes de Espadana. It may be said that she symbolizes the Filipinos in our society who are ashamed of their own race and nationality.
h.) Don Rafael Ibarra – The father of Crisostomo Ibarra. He was a rich and brave man. He was imprisoned for the accidental death of a Spanish tax collector while defending a helpless boy from the cruelty of the Spaniards.
i.) Sisa – She is a formerly rich girl who had the misfortune of marrying a good-for-nothing gambler man. She eventually became poor but she remained loyal to her husband and devotion to her two sons Crispin and Basilio. In the novel Sisa portrays a loving mother, and it could be assumed that Rizal likened her to his own mother. Sisa is being maltreated by the Spaniards; similarly, our country is being abused by the Spaniards.
j.) Crispin – Son of sisa. The younger Brother of Basilio that was accused of stealing money from the priest and was tortured in the convent where he died.
k.) Basilio – Elder brother of Crispin. Was able to escape the Guardian Civil and finds his mother’s dead body in the forest.
l.) Don Santiago de los Santos – Ibarra’s future father-in-law and Maria Clara’s father. He is a Chinese half-breed and one of the richest man in San Diego. He got his fortune and social title through his marriage to Pia Alba. People call him Sacristan Tiago behind his back because he would patronize ideas but not without the prior approval of the friars or officials.
m.) Pia Alba- a beautiful Spanish Mestiza whose family was prominent in the sugar, coffee and indigo industry in San Diego. She visits the church and confess her “sins” to Padre Damaso. Eventually she became pregnant but didn’t see her daughter Maria Clara bloom into a beautiful woman.
n.) Maria Clara – Childhood sweetheart of Crisostomo Ibarra. The daughter of Dona Pia Alba and Padre Damaso. The object of affection and sympathy of the townfolks and the patternal affection and concern of Padre Damaso, her baptismal godfather.
o.) Don Filipo Lino- the teniente-mayor and leader of the liberal faction of the town. He is the gobernadorcillo of the town who faithfully catered to the wishes of Spanish friars.
p) Doña Consolacion – Dona Victorina’s rival and the vulgar mistress of the Alférez
q.) Elias- He appears everytime Ibarra is in trouble. He believes that justice can be obtained only through revolution --- reforms simply won't do. He symbolizes the very root of the Filipino culture before the coming of the Spaniards, which remained strong and unbroken by the Spanish culture.
r.)Don Alfonso Linares de Espadana –a cousin of Don Tiburcio and godson of Padre Damaso’s brother in-law to Capitan Tiago, He was a jobless fortune hunter who came to the Philippines ins earch of a rich Filipino heioress he caopuld marry but Maria clara loved only Ibarra.
s.) Guardia Civil- pursued to catch Ibarra and Elias as they paddled up the Pasig river toward Laguna de Bay
It took Rizal 3 years and 4 months to finish El Fili. (October 1887 in Calamba – March 28, 1891 in Biarritz)
Valentine Ventura sponsored the publication of El Fili.
The El Filibusterismo is a sequel to the first novel of Rizal – The Noli Me Tangere. The former is shorter consisting only of 38 chapters compared to the 64 chapters of the latter novel.
The Reign of Greed (alternative English title of the translation by Charles Derbyshire)
It was published in Ghent.
Rizal dedicated the novel to the martyrs of the Cavite Mutiny – Marciano Gomez, Jose Burgos, and Jacinto Zamora. The execution of the three priests was significant to the title of the novel.
El Fili means “dangerous patriot who will soon be on the gallows, or else a conceited fellow” (Locsin & Locsin, 1996)
–- Crisostomo Ibarra in disguise, left for dead at the end of Noli Me Tangere. He was a rich bearded jeweller who likes to wear blue tinted glasses. Fueled by his mistreatment at the hands of the Spaniards and his fury at Maria Clara’s fate.
– - son of Sisa. A graduating Medical Student who befriended Simoun.
Basilio symbolizes the Filipino youth, whom Rizal (through Simoun) advises to be more nationalistic ( love your own language, fight for your country’s freedom)
– Basilio’s friend, ex-beau of Paulita Gomez and the man who removed the explosive lamp from Captain Tiago’s house, thus sabotaging Simoun’s plans.
– a famous “journalist” who was asked by the students about his decision for the Academia de Castellano. In reality, he is quite an ordinary fellow who married a rich woman in order to be a member of Manila’s high society.
– the girlfriend of Isagani and the niece of Doña Victorina. In the end, she and Juanito Pelaez got married and she dumps Isagani, believing that she will have no future if she marries him.
– One of Isagani’s classmates at the University of Santo Tomas. He is a rich student and serves as the leader of the students yearning to build the Academia de Castellano.
– Isagani’s godfather and a secular priest; was engaged to be married, but choose to be a priest after being pressured by his mother. The story hinting at the ambivalence of his decision as he chooses an assignment to a remote place, living in solitude near the sea.
– Juliana de Dios, the girlfriend of Basilio and the youngest daughter of Kabesang Tales. To claim her father from the bandits, she had work as maid under the supervision of Hermana Penchang. Eventually, she was freed but committed suicide after Father Camorra attempted to rape her.
– A favourite student of the professors. They belong to the noble Spanish ancestry.
Doña Victorina – Victorina delos Reyes de Espadana,
known in Noli Me Tangere as Tiburcio de Espadana’s cruel wife. She is the aunt of Paulita Gomez and favors Juanito Pelaez than Isagani. Although of Indio ideology, she considers herself as one of the Peninsular. the old Indio who passes herself off as a Peninsular, who is the wife of the quack doctor Tiburcio de Espadana.
– The lustful parish priest of Tiani (San Diego’s adjacent town), who has long time desires for young women. He nearly raped Juli causing the latter to commit suicide.
– The pseudonym of Abraham Ibanez, a journalist who believes he is the “only” one thinking in the Philippines.
– A student of the University of Sto. Tomas who was very intelligent and wise but did not want, if not only by his mother’s plea, to pursue his studies.
– Sagpang’s rich pusakal (gambler). She offers Juli to be her maid so the latter can obtain money to free Kabesang Tales.Disbelieving of Huli and her close friends, she considers herself as an ally of the friars.
Don Tiburcio de Espadana
– Spanish Quack Doctor who is limp and submissive to his wife. Lame husband of Victorina de Espadana. He is currently hiding with Father Florentino.
– Captain Tiago’s spiritual adviser. Although reluctant, he helped students to establish the Academia de Castellano after being convinced by giving him a chestnut. The only witness to Captain Tiago’s death, he forged the last will and testament of the latter so Basilio will obtain nothing from the inheritance.
– A Chinese businessman who dreamed of being a consul for his country in the Philippines. He did Simoun’s weapons inside his house.
Don Timoteo Pelaez
– Juanito’s father. He is a rich businessman and arranges a wedding for his son and Paulita. He and Simoun became business partners.
– Father of Kabesang Tales. He raised the sick and young Basilio after he left their house in Noli Me Tangere. He died in an encounter on the mountains, with his son Tales.
– The priest-friend of Isagani. He promised to Isagani that he and the other priests will give in to the student’s demands.
– the vice-leader of Macaraig’s gang. A Spanish classmate of Isagani, he coerces his classmates to lead alongside him the opening of the Spanish language academy.
– Another gambler in Tiani. She became Juli’s mother-figure and counselor; he helped to release Kabesang Tales from the hands of the bandits.
– The Physics teacher of the University of Sto. Tomas. He always becomes vindictive with Placido and always taunts him during class.
– Macaraig’s classmate. He, along with the other three members of their gang, supposedly posted the posters that “thanked” Don Custodio and Father Irene for the opening of the Academia de Castellano.
– an American who holds stage plays starring decapitated heads; he is good friends with Simoun.
– Kabesang Tales’ elder son. He is currently one of the Guardia Civil. He then returned under the name “tae mo” after his exile in Caroline Islands.
– the highest-ranking official in the Philippines during the Spanish colonial period, this unnamed character pretends what he is doing is for the goods of the Indios (the local citizens of the country) but in reality, he prioritizes the needs of his fellow Spaniards living in the country.
– classmate who had no idea on the happenings occurring around him. He suggested that they held the mock celebration at the panciteria.
Father Bernardo Salvi
– Former parish priest of San Diego, now the director and chaplain of the Santa Clara convent.
– Maria Clara’s stepfather and the foster-father of Basilio. His health disintegrates gradually because of the opium he was forced to smoke.
– Don Custodio’s supposed girlfriend. She seems to be a close friend of Macaraig.
Father Hernando de la Sibyla
– a Dominican friar introduced in Noli Me Tangere, now the vice-rector of the University of Sto. Tomas.