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Style, context and register

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Ricky Kurniawan

on 27 November 2013

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Transcript of Style, context and register

Adressee as an influence on style
Take a look at Example 2 (page 236)

The better you know someone, the more casual and relaxed style you will use.
People tend to use standard forms to people they do not know well.
Speaker’s relationship to the addressee is crucial in determining the appropriate style of speaking.

Speech Divergence
Choosing a language which is not used by one’s addressee
Minority ethnic groups who want to maintain and display their cultural distinctiveness will often use their own linguistic variety, even in interaction with majority group members. Example: Maori
Funtions: to make a political point, to distinguish themselves from their addressees; not always (-) but can be appealing

Accommodation Theory
Speech Accommodation:
The process of converging one’s speech towards the speech of the person they are talking to.
Accommodation most often takes the form of convergence and less frequently the form of divergence.
Converging is usually considered a polite speech strategy

Style, context and register
Introduction
Language varies according to its uses as well as its users, according to where it is used and to whom, as well as according to who is using it
The addressees and the context affect our choice of code variety, whether language, dialect or style.
Style:
a choice of ways of expression

Accomodation Problem
Example 9 (page 245)
Over-convergent behaviour may be perceived as helping and gaining favor, as showing affection, or even as evidence that the speaker is making fun of others
Listeners also reacts differently to different types of convergence
Solving an accomodation problem: depends on the context; formal/informal (example 10, page 246)

presented by:
Ricky Kurniawan 121112033
Christy Dio 121112081
Anggit Pangastuti 121112088
Enita Wardhana 121112089

Age of addressee
Addressee as an influence on style (cont'd)
Many factors may contribute in determining the degree of social distance or solidarity
Age
Gender
Social roles
In the same particular society
These factors may also be relevant to people’s relative social status.

People generally talk differently to children and to adults - though some adjust their speech style or 'accomodate' more than others
To toddlers > using sing-song intonation and ‘baby-talk’ words
To children > use simpler vocabulary and grammatical structures
Example 4
Age of adressee (cont'd)
People also use different style in addressing older people, often with features similar to those which characterize their speech to children
Simpler range of vocabulary
Less complex grammar
The use of we rather than you to refer the adressee
Sing-song intonation which characterise baby-talk
Speech Divergence (cont'd)
Referee design: Speakers diverge both from their own usual speech style and from that of their addressee(s) towards the style of a third party for special effect
Example: When you imitate your lecturer to amuse your friends
The reactions: depend on the reasons people attribute for it

How do speakers accommodate?
Types of accommodation:
- converging the content of speech
- simplifying vocabulary and grammar
- translating a complicated technical message
- converging upwards
Reasons for accommodation:
- getting more comfortable with addressee
- securing goodwill or bargain
- improving chances of a good sale

Example 6
The utterances illustrate a number of linguistic features which distingush the pronunciations of news readers on different radio station.
Social background of addressee
Social background of addressee (cont’d)
This is support for the importance of
audience design
:
The influence of the adressee or audience on a speaker style.
The most convincing evidence comes from the behaviour of the same news reader on different radio stations.
In this situation newsreader produced consistently different styles for each audience.
The news is the same and the context is identical except for one factor- the adressees
Social background of addressee (cont’d)
Job often times requires speaker to accommodate our clients.
e.g. in example 7, there is a shift of pronouncing the consonant [d] according to customers’ social background
People’s speech change in response to the interviewer’s speech.
e.g. feature of AAVE in speech
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