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# Astronomy: The Final Frontier

by

## Jon Connelly

on 30 August 2011

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#### Transcript of Astronomy: The Final Frontier

Astronomy: The Final Frontier Kepler's First Law:
The planets orbit the sun in an elliptical shape. (An ellipse is just a fancy oval) http://htwins.net/scale/ Kepler's Second Law:

The planets move more slowly when they are farther away from the sun.

The planets move more quickly when they are closer to the sun. Diagram of the Milky Way galaxy Stages of the moon Venus Mercury Mars Kepler's Third Law:

The length of a planet's year can be determined by taking the cube of the distance of half of the longest axis, and finding the square root.

t x t = a x a x a The sun is 332,946 times larger than the Earth! If the period at the end of this sentence was the Earth, the sun would have to be 1734 feet across. Tilt of the Earth's Axis

23.75°

Different parts of the Earth are tilted towards the sun at different times of the year, giving us the four seasons Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Speed of the Earth

40000 km in 24 hours (one day)

1070 mph

Speed decreases to almost zero at the poles Earth Earth

Third planet from the sun

Fifth largest planet in the solar system

70% oceans

Air: 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, Size: 4880 km across Size: 11,677 km across Size: 12,756 km across Introduction

Space is everything.
Here's what you need to know about it. Size: 6786 km across Size: 142,800 km across Size: 74,898 km across Size: 51118 km across Phases of the Moon

New Moon: Positioned between the earth and the moon

Full Moon: Moon, earth and sun are aligned, but entire sunlit portion of the moon is facing Earth

First Quarter and Third Quarter: Moon is at 90 degree with respect to Earth and sun (half illuminated and half shadow)

Waxing crescent: Increasing in visibility, less than half

Waxing gibbous: Increasing in visibility, more than half

Waning gibbous: Decreasing in visibility, more than half

Waning crescent: Decreasing in visibility, less than half Next stop: Our local star. Size: 49,528 km across Did you know?: Half of Mercury had never been seen until the MESSENGER flyby in 2008. Did you know?: Venus is the only planet in our solar system that does not have moons. Did you know: a year on Earth is actually 365.2564 days long. It is the extra .2564 days that accounts for the leap year. Did you know?: Mars has the tallest mountain in our solar system. Mount Olympus Mons is 27 km tall. Did you know?: Jupiter's magnetic field is 14 times stronger than that of the Earth. Did you know?: Saturn is the least dense planet in our solar system. If one could find a pool large enough to place the enormous planet in, it would float. Did you know?: Uranus has 27 moons. Did you know?: Neptune has the strongest winds in our solar system. Earth's moon All planets follow nearly identical laws of motion, as established by the German astronomer Johannes Kepler. Pluto is not a planet. The end. See you in space. Presented by:

Jonathan Connelly
Ian Groff
Mark Lieberman
Full transcript