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Transcript of didactics I
Erikson said that humans develop throughout their life span
This approach retained overt behaviour as an important dependent variable of psychology while acknowledging the existence and significance of unobserved behaviour.
In Mastery learning, "the students are helped to master each learning unit before proceeding to a more advanced learning task" (Bloom 1985) in contrast to "conventional instruction".
It has little to do with specific content, but rather is a description of the process of mastering particular learning objectives.
Ausubel (1967:10) focused on meaningful learning, as "a clearly articulated and precisely differentiated conscious experience that emerges when potentially meaningful signs, symbols, concepts, or propositions are related to and incorporated within a given individual's cognitive structure" (Takač 2008, p. 26).
Discovery learning is a technique of inquiry-based learning and is considered a constructivist based approach to education.
It takes place in problem solving situations where the learner draws on his own experience and prior knowledge and is a method of instruction through which students interact with their environment by exploring and manipulating objects, wrestling with questions and controversies, or performing experiments.
Zone of Proximal Development
The zone of proximal development, often abbreviated as ZPD, is the difference between what a learner can do without help and what he or she can do with help.
Vygotsky and some educators believe that education's role is to give children experiences that are within their zones of proximal development, thereby encouraging and advancing their individual learning.
The ZPD concept is seen as a scaffolding, a structure of "support points" for performing an action. This refers to the help or guidance received from an adult or more competent peer to permit the child to work within the ZPD.
The goal of genetic epistemology is to link the validity of knowledge to the model of its construction. It shows that how the knowledge was gained affects how valid it is.
It also explains the process of how people develop cognitively from birth throughout their lives in four primary stages: sensorimotor (birth to age 2), preoperational (2-7), concrete operational (7-11), and formal operational (11 years onward). The main focus is on the younger years of development.
occurs when the perception of a new event or object occurs to the learner in an existing schema and is usually used in the context of self-motivation. In
, one accommodates the experiences according to the outcome of the tasks. The highest form of development is equilibration.
encompasses both assimilation and accommodation as the learner changes how they think to get a better answer. This is the upper level of development.
Conditioning in which
(human being) emits
a response, or operant
(a sentence/utterance) without necessarily observable stimuli; that operant is
(positive verbal or non-verbal response from another person)
Maslow's motivation theory states that man's behaviour is controlled by both internal and external factors. In addition he emphasizes that humans have the unique ability to make choices and exercise free-will.
"Through social and language interactions, older and more experienced members of a community teach younger and less experienced members the skills, values, and knowledge needed to be productive members of that community,"
(Harry Daniels, author of "An Introduction to Vygotsky.")
VYGOTSKY AND LANGUAGE ACQUISTION
According to Piaget, children construct knowledge about language through a complex process of assimilation, stressing the inherent capability of a childs brain to adapt to stimulation.
By contrast, Vygotsky stresses the social nature of language learning, emphasizing the environment within which a child is raised.
Vygotsky vs Piaget