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Paleolithic and Neolithic Homonids
Transcript of Paleolithic and Neolithic Homonids
The economy was based upon animal husbandry and bartering. Neolithic Religion and practice The Neolithic people worshiped totems and images of animals and plants. They worshiped forces of nature including the sun, moon, and stars . They also worshiped clay figurines of the "Mother Goddess" in hope that fertility of the land would improve. Megaliths were built as temples to worship the Sun God, at the time of summer solstices, e.g., the Stonehenge Megalith in England. Neolithic Era Paleolithic Pictures Pictures Time Frame
The Neolithic era began at around 10,000 B.C. and ended around 2,000 B.C.
The Neolithic people learned to farm and domesticate plants and animals. They learned how to make a language more sophisticated than the Paleolithic people.
Neolithic people lived in mud, thatch, and wood houses. The topography included mountains, rivers, and flatland's. The climate was cooler than previous periods
The Neolithic people were omnivores. They ate dairy foods such as milk and cheese, meat, grains, wheat, barley, and rice. Lower Paleolithic- Longest division which lasted until 200,000 years ago. Tools of this division include: hand axes and cleavers. People of this division were Homo Habilis and Australopithecines.
Middle Paleolithic- 40,000 years ago. People of this time included Homo sapiens and Neanderthals. It used the Mousterian tool Culture (flint flake tools). The tools of this time were improvements of the Lower Paleolithic period. Little changed during this period
Upper Paleolithic- about 10,000 years ago in Europe and the Middle East. This period was associated with modern day Homo sapiens. The tool cultures of this division included Aurignacian(bone and stone figures), Solutrean(leafed shaped flint blades), and Magdalenian(antler and flaked stone) The first humans lived during this time period, which is called the Paleolithic Era by scientists. This period was approximately 2.5 million to 10000 years ago. People The people of this era were usually nomads that followed the migrating herds of animals. They lived in small groups or tribes that were completely dependent upon their natural resources. For example they utilized caves or rock overhangs as shelter. Technology The use of knowledge, tools and technology made life much easier. The first tools developed were crudely chipped stones. Later on they made better and intricate tools that were made of: wood, bones, and stone. For example they learned to attach wooden handles onto tools. Nevertheless leading to the invention of spears and other tools like it that would be of prodigious benefit to their lifestyle. Introduction Paleolithic refers to the time 2.5 million years ago, and was also known as the "stone age". The paleolithic era was divided into three sections: the lower paleolithic, middle paleolithic, and upper paleolithic. This was the time frame that included the evolution of humans which plays a significant role in our environment today.
Neolithic means the "new stone era"(neo-new, and lith=stone), occuring after the Paleolithic era. It started in 10,000 BC in South West Asia, and later included societies in Europe and Africa. It was characterized by the: start of farming, domestication of animals, and the development of crafts such as pottery. Landforms and Natural Features The natural features located in Africa when the hominids were residing in this area were deserts, savannahs, swamps, rain-forests, plateaus, mountains, and rivers. In addition the climate was excruciatingly hot. Historical Influences Although this time period was to far back in history for us to know the names of certain influential and significant individuals, paleontologists, archeologists, and scientists have found bone remnants from hominids during the period, for example Lucy, and these people could be considered significant individuals for their time period to our knowledge. To Eat! They had a primitive government of which the head of the family was the eldest man. They lived in groups of approximately 20-30 people in caves. They made the concepts of faith and created the start of ideas such as: life, death, etc.
They had a language which comprised of grunts and head movements Bibliography
- Collins, Robert. Arica a short history. page 5. -. Princeton: Markus Wiener Publishers, 2012. page 11. Print
- "Stone Age." Stone AGe. 17. U.S.A>: 1988.
Neolithic ." . N.p..Web. 10 Nov 2012. http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Neolithic
. "Paleolithic vs. Neolithic." .N.p..Web. 10 Nov 2012. http://vspages.com/paleolithic-vs-neolithic-21311/
Biggs, Alton, Whitney Hagins, Chris Kapicka, Linda Lundgren, Peter Rillero, Kathleen Tallman, and Dinah Zike. Biology The Dynamics of life. Columbus: McGraw-Hill Companies,Inc., 2005. 434. Print.
World History. Print.
A project by History World International, The neolithic transformation. N.p.. Web. 20 Nov 2012. <http://history-world.org/neolithic1.htm>.
Hirst, Kris. "Otzi the Iceman." The Iceman. N.p.. Web. 20 Nov 2012. <http://archaeology.about.com/od/iterms/qt/iceman.htm>.
. "THe Neolithic Transition." The Agrarian Revolution And The Birth Of Civilization. N.p.. Web. 20 Nov 2012. <http://history-world.org/neolithic1.htm>. Men and women were first in Africa. The first “species” were Homo Sapiens that evolved into modern humans. As time passed they migrated. Some crossed the land bridge into the America’s about 12,000 years ago. Others migrated into the Middle East about 100,000 years ago. Somr went to Europe about 40,000 years ago. Others wandered to Australia about 35,000 years ago The Neolithic Era only lasted over small duration of time
They lived a more settled life and usually stayed in one area
There were different and more roles in a society
There were different tools such as knives made out of steel and copper
They made their houses out of wood, thatch, mud, and stone
They lived in more of a community The Paleolithic period lasted over a longer duration
They lived a nomadic life
Most of the people were just hunters and gatherers
Utilized stone, bones, and wood for to make tools
Lived in caved areas
Made cave paintings
They lived in smaller groups usually ranging from 20-30 people Contrast They both had the same economy and utilized the barter system
They both believed in animism Compare Neolithic Paleolithic Process of evolution Contribution Bruce:
The Evolution Process
People of these times People of these times Divisions Neolithic Climate Lucy(paleolithic)
Lucy (Australopithecus Afarensis) was discovered in 1974 in Ethiopia. She is about 3.18 million years old. Forty percent of the skeleton was found. Lucy had a small skull similar to apes. She had pelvic and leg bones identical to those of humans, evidence that she had a bipedal upright walk similar to humans. She was 1.1 meter tall (3 feet 7 inches).
Otzi the iceman (neolithic)
Otzi the iceman was discovered in 1991. His body was perfectly preserved inside of a glacier. His full body allowed archeologist first detailed look into clothing, tools, and diet of the period. Died around 3350-3300 B.C. late Neolithic period. He was about 40 years old and about 158 cm (5 ft 2 in), 61 kg (134 lbs). The clothing found included a belt, loincloth, goatskin leggings with suspenders, bearskin cap, outer cape, moccasin type shoes made from deer and bear leather (shoes were stuffed with moss and grass probably for insulation. His stomach held wheat, game meat, and plums. Neolithic distribution OTZI the ICEMAN Neolithic People Evolution Stone tools Cave Painting