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Transcript of Coal Preparation
and cleaning Major Types of Coal Emission Mitigation Primarily controlled with "end-of-pipe" technologies
These emissions have largely been mitigated through currently available technologies. NOx, SOx, Hg, PM CO2 Emissions Coal combustion is #1 source of CO2 emissions in the U.S.
Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology may significantly reduce CO2 emissions. Basic Coal Use in homes Coke CCS Technology Post-Combustion Capture
Oxy-Fuel Combustion Comminution starts with the mining process Continuous Miner Longwall Miner Approximately 30% of coal needs no further crushing or cleaning and is shipped directly from the mine
Generally, underground coal mining produces a finer product than surface coal mining. Some common crushers and breakers used in coal size reduction... Single-Roll Crusher Double-Roll Breaker Rotary Breaker Roller-Race Mill A typical crushing circuit for Wyoming sub-bituminous Coal. Anthracite
Lignite least produced, high heat conc. second most produced, highest heat conc. most produced, low heat conc. most common in the world, lowest heat conc. Production of Electricity Most widespread use
Historical use for coal
Innefficient Steam turbine
Most major, modern use
More power than all renewables The mineral, not the drug Steel Production By products Coal Tar
Coal Gas Coal Tar Used in nearly everything. Shampoo
Paint Thinners Coal Gas Mainly Used in the Production of Syngas Syngas: A major ingredient in many synthetic fuels, as well as other industrial applications Acknowledgments Questions? NOx, SOx, PM Dense-medium Dense-medium used for coal separation.
Suspension of magnetite and water.
Types of Dense-medium baths, cyclones and cylindrical centrifugal separators. Froth flotation is the most widely used method for cleaning coal. Froth flotation vibrating screens Coal and water mixture. The coal floats and the refuse particles sink. One way to improve the performance of a coal separation machine is to separate the pyrite at an earlier stage using cyclones, spirals or tables. Vibrating screens used for screening coal.
Small particles are difficult to screen.
Shaking screens increase the opportunities for particles to pass through the screen holes.
The particle limit for the screen is 10 micro meters. Coal
Characterization Compaction and conversion of organics at high temperature and pressure.
Time duration determines rank of coal.
Two main types: Humic and Sapropelic
Primarily made up of C, H, O, N, S, Si, Ca, Al, and Fe
Common minerals are Quartz, Clays, Pyrite, Calcite, and Sidertie Low to high rank of humic coal
Lignite, Sub-bituminous, Bituminous, Semi-anthracite, and Anthracite
Lignite can spontaneously ignite under appropriate conditions
Anthracite needs to reach 925 F to ignite
Low rank coals have high porosity and high rank coals have low porosity. Anthracite Lignite Density of Bituminous coal vary depending on ash content
1-5% ash = density of 1.3-1.4 g/cc
75-90% ash = density of 1.9 g/cc and greater
Coal rank is dependent upon moisture content, volatile matter, percent fixed carbon, and Btu/lb Formation Bituminous Coal Preparation Manual, 1st Edition, Pittsburg: McNally, 1979, p. 16-44. Coal Rank Physical Properties J. Leonard, B. Hardinge, Coal Preparation, 5th ed., Littleton: Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration, INC., 1991, p. 143-187. An Introduction to Coal Quality, Chapter C, U.S.G.S., 2009, p. 7-13. Morcote et. al, "Dynamic Elastic Properties of Coal", Geophysics, Vol 75, No 6, 2010, pg 1-2.
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