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The Federal Bureaucracy
Transcript of The Federal Bureaucracy
Period 4 Federal Bureaucracy Who are they & What do they do? The Bureaucrats Cabinet Departments Organization of Bureaucracies What Implementation Means... Bureaucracies As Implementors What is Privatization? Privatization Regulate what? Bureaucracies As Regulators Bureaucracies make up one of America's two unelected policymaking institutions Understanding Bureaucracies
-Everyday citizens (Diverse groups of men
-Non-elected government workers
-Hired and promoted by the Civil Service system
-Create rules, laws, and regulations
for their institutions Independent Regulatory Commissions Government Corporations The Independent Executive Agencies Each of the 15 Cabinet Departments is headed by a secretary (except the Department of Justice who is headed by the Attorney General). The Secretaries are chosen by the President and approved by the Senate. Undersecretaries, Deputy Undersecretaries, and Assistant Secretaries report to the Secretary, who, in turn, reports to the President. Each Department has its own mission and is organized differently. The real work in the Departments is done by the bureaus. "A government agency responsible for some sector of the economy, making and enforcing rules to protect the public interest. It also judges disputes over these rules." Sometimes known as the "Alphabet Soup" of the government because they are mostly known by their initials. Each of the Independent Regulatory Commissions is governed by a small commission of about 5-10 people. These people are appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate for fixed terms. Independent Regulatory Commissions Government Corporations 1. Provide a service that could be handled by the private sector. 2. Typically charge for their services, but their rates are cheaper than those of the private sector. Example: The U.S Postal Service Independent Executive Agencies The rest of the government Their administrators are typically appointed by the president and serve at his pleasure. ~Example: NASA Why Implementation Can Have Problems... Policy implementation is the stage of policymaking that is between the establishment and the results for individuals. The three elements of implementation: 1. Creation of a new agency or assignment of a new responsibility to an old agency. 2. Translation of policy goals into operational rules and development of guidelines for the program. 3. Coordination of resources and personnel to achieve the intended goals. Faulty program design Lack of clarity about a policies goals. Lack of the resources necessary to carry out assigned tasks. (ie: staff, training, funding, supplies, equipment, and authority) Administrative routine such as Standard Operating Procedures sometimes act as red tape that make it hard to implement policy. Standard Operating Procedures Used by bureaucrats to bring uniformity to complex organizations. Uniformity improves fairness and makes personnel interchangeable. Administrators can act according to their own discretion in deciding to give a response to a certain problem (Administrative Discretion). Fragmentation can cause bureaucrats to work against each other since they are on different committees. Decentralizes authority to provide performance incentives Authority is given to private contractors to help aide, construct, etc. for the government. Raises competition in the private sector Example? The company Halliburton is given money to help rebuild Iraq Regulate practices in the private sector. They can regulate diverse things such as locations to nuclear power plants to food additives. Controversy! The Supreme court upheld the Government's to regulate business operations in 1877 Can Government Restrictions Be Lifted? Yes, through a process called Deregulation. Why do we need Deregulation? Critics claim the the regulatory system causes... High prices on goods
Hurts America's Competitive Position Abroad
Regulations don't always work Why? To protect American's, the environment, etc. Presidents try to control the Bureaucracy by appointing heads of agencies, issuing executive orders, changing the budgets of agencies, holding hearings,and reorganizing agencies. Congress tries to control the Bureaucracies by influencing the appointment of agency heads, changing the agency's budget, holding hearings, and writing legislation. Since the Bureaucracy is part of the iron triangle it is tied to both interest groups and congressional subcommittees. Iron Triangle: A mutually dependent relationship between bureaucratic agencies, interest groups, and congressional committees or subcommittees. Iron triangles dominate some areas od domestic policymaking.