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Transcript of The Enlightenment
and growth of political philosophy The Enlightenment Period 1. Describe the Enlightenment
2. Identify major scientists and
political philosophers of the
3. Compare political philosophers
of the Enlightenment
4. Examine how the Enlightenment
has changed the world we live
in today Political Philosophy Learning Objectives
(Big Ideas) Thinkers that concentrated on the mind, political subjects and other abstract concepts. Thomas Hobbes The Leviathan Philosophers influenced by the French Revolution.... The Enlightenment Movement of intellectuals (scientists & philosohers)
in 17-18th centuries (1600-1700's).
Purpose: to reform society using REASON
and to challenge ideas grounded in
religion and faith. Improvements in Mathematics & Science
Bold, new ideas about basic human rights
& Democracy Scientific Revolution a "Rational" Approach to science was developed
With help from Bacon & Descartes
The Scientific Method Global 2
Mrs. Christopher Using REASON led to: "Fathers of the Enlightenment 1. Francis Bacon
2. Rene Descartes 1. make observation
2. ask question
5. analyze data
6. draw conclusion Scientific Revolution Enlightenment Period Isaac Newton formulated basics of calculus
Laws of gravity
Laws of motion
Book "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy" Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy Profoundly changed
science for the next 200
years! Scientific Revolution More important Scientists Galileo Galilei Nicolaus Copernicus Observed moons of Jupiter and confirmed theories of planetary orbits Against "geocentric" model
believed planets orbited
around the sun The Big ones: 1. John Locke
4. Jean-Jacques Rousseau
5. Thomas Hobbes Meanwhile in England... English Civil War
( mid 17th Century)
caused two thinkers to PONDER what it might all mean.... People are like untamed monsters. Need a strong absolute government to keep order! The Leviathan Like Machiavelli's "THE PRINCE"
(16th Century) Meanwhile in England.... John Locke Two Treatises on Government 1. Natural Rights
People are born free with natural
rights; life, liberty & property
2. Social Contract Theory
Citizens enter into an
agreement with the gov't ; they
protect basic rights and citizens
3. Consent of the Governed
Permission to rule over them as
long as the Gov't continues to
protect their natural rights John Locke Freedoms & Reforms 1. Freedom of the press
2. Educational reforms
3. Religious tolerance Locke challenged the thinking of the day.... how would nobles claim more rights & privileges if everyone is born equally? Voltaire, Montesquieu & Rousseau Voltaire Promoted:
Freedom of Speech I disapprove of what you have to say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it. The different faces of Montesquieu V. Promoted:
Separation of Powers To maintain balance and avoid one group or person having too much power.... legislative, Executive & Judicial branches Rousseau "Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains" protest gov'ts that prevent natural rights and liberty **Government's main purpose
is to rule for the common
good of all What most enlightenment thinkers can AGREE on.... Separation of Church and State WHY??
* hint: think historical context Compare Philosophers! Who, Me?