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CJD

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April Adamson

on 13 March 2013

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Transcript of CJD

By April Adamson Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease History of Disease What is CJD? Types of CJD Transmission of CJD Causes of CJD What are the Symptoms? Diagnosis The German physician H.G. Creutzfeldt was credited for the first description of this disease in 1920. Though, through current diagnostic criteria his case was highly atypical. CJD is a rare brain disorder that is incurable and fatal. There are three main types of CJD: In 1974, a diagnosis of CJD was made due to a corneal transplant and contaminated neuro-surgical instruments that had transmitted the disease. A year later, the German Neurologist A. Jakob had at least two cases that were recognized as CJD. In the United Kingdom, 147 cases of vCJD due to Mad Cow disease. It is caused by a protein called prion, which build up in the brain and damage brain cells. It is characterized by a rapid occurrence of confusion, memory loss, behavior changes, and eventually leading to dementia. This disease spreads quickly, within 3 to 12 months of activation of the disease it will have destroyed enough functions of the brain and body which eventually will cause death. First is sporadic CJD: disease occurs in a person with no history or known risk factors. Most common type of CJD (85% of all cases). Second is hereditary CJD: person with family history of disease or test positive for genetic mutation associated with CJD (5 to 10% of cases in the U.S.). Third is acquired CJD: transmitted through exposure to brain or nervous tissue usually through medical operations. Has been linked to the consumption of prion-contaminated beef (Mad Cow Disease). This protein is filterable, self-replicating, biologically stable. CJd is one of the most common type of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) found in humans. The first-degree relatives to a person with CJD is at greater risk of having the disease. This disease is not transmitted through the air, sharing food or drink, or from direct contact with an individual with this disease. Cases of CJD has been transmitted through dura mater graphs, transplanted corneas, implantation of inadequately sterilized electrodes in the brain, and injections of contaminated pituitary growth hormones. Acquired CJD can come from eating contaminated beef. There has not been a reported case of CJD caused by transfusion of blood or blood products like plasma. The first stages of CJD may include symptoms like: personality/behavioral changes
memory loss
anxiety and depression
difficulty sleeping, and
impaired thinking The later stages of CJD include: Blindness/blurred vision
weakness
loss of balance/coordination
difficulty walking and talking, and
involuntary jerking/movements Eventually a patient with CJD will lose the ability to move, do everyday functions, and even speak. The only way to diagnosis CJD is a brain biopsy or examination of brain tissue. Tests such as an electroencephalogram (records brain's electrical patterns), a spinal tap, and a MRI can indicate whether it is other causes of dementia. Scientists are working on creating laboratory tests on the cerebrospinal fluid which can detects a protein markers and indicates it's neuronal degeneration. There is no treatment that can cure or reverse CJD, though doctors have tried many drugs. Current treatment focuses on the patients comfort and assisting the patient with any needs. Treatment As far as holistic medicine goes there is nothing much besides caring for the patients needs. Instead of staying in a nursing home the patient can have a hospice nursing taking care of them. My Personal Experience with CJD I was 10 years old when my grandma was diagnosed with CJD in 2005. The dementia set in quick. On Memorial Day she went on a golf tip and was fine. On my birthday (June 12) she acted fine but apparently she eat a lot. On Fathers Day (June 19) she couldn't make sentences and she lost the ability to some everyday functions. In July members of my family took my grandmother down to the Mayo Clinic where she was diagnosed with CJD. My grandma passes away in August so it only took just over three months from the first symptoms to complete loss of brain function. My Grandmother's bother had died of a brain disease but he was not diagnosed with CJD but the doctors think that it was hereditary. Does Insurance Cover CJD Patients? Most personal insurance plans and Medicare will cover a patient with CJD.
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